Key messages

• Cardiac tamponade is a low-flow state resulting from accumulation of blood or fluid in the pericardial sac that limits ventricular filling, stroke volume, and cardiac output.

• It may progress slowly with some degree of compensation, or develop rapidly into an acute tamponade syndrome with potentially lethal cardiogenic shock

• With slowly developing effusions, the pericardial sac is able to dilate and can accommodate 2 liters or more of fluid.

• Pulsus paradoxus is a useful sign in slowly developing pericardial effusions, but is not very useful in rapidly developing tamponade from penetrating injuries.

• Definitive diagnostic information can be provided by echocardiography, CT, and magnetic resonance imaging, and confirmed by pericardiocentesis.

Sleep Apnea

Sleep Apnea

Have You Been Told Over And Over Again That You Snore A Lot, But You Choose To Ignore It? Have you been experiencing lack of sleep at night and find yourself waking up in the wee hours of the morning to find yourself gasping for air?

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