Key messages

• Cardiac output can be measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques.

• Non-invasive techniques should be viewed as complementary to, rather than competitive with, invasive methods.

• Additional information is often provided on circulatory status (e.g. filling, contractility, extravascular lung water).

• Reliability and accuracy vary. This may depend as much on the device as on the technique itself. The operator must be aware of the pitfalls and shortcomings of both the technique and the device being utilized, and of specific problems which may arise in individual patients with certain conditions.

Healthy Fat Loss For A Longer Life

Healthy Fat Loss For A Longer Life

What will this book do for me? A growing number of books for laymen on the subject of health have appeared in the past decade. Never before has there been such widespread popular interest in medical science. Learn more within this guide today and download your copy now.

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