Key messages

• Profound hypoxemia leads to morbidity and mortality from drowning.

• Freshwater drowning leads to alveolar collapse by interfering with surfactant production.

• Saltwater drowning leads to transudative pulmonary edema.

• Although significant electrolyte changes do not commonly occur, the cardiac and cerebral effects of fluid shifts can be lethal. Epidemiology

Drowning is defined as asphyxia by submersion. It is the third leading cause of accidental death in the United States, accounting for approximately 8000 deaths each year. Globally, 140 000 deaths attributable to drowning occur annually. The incidence of drowning is three times higher in males than in females, and twice as high in the black compared with the white population (E!Jjs a.nd T^e.D.t 1995). Near-drownings, defined as survival at least to the point of extraction from the water, occur three to five times as frequently as drownings.

Sleep Apnea

Sleep Apnea

Have You Been Told Over And Over Again That You Snore A Lot, But You Choose To Ignore It? Have you been experiencing lack of sleep at night and find yourself waking up in the wee hours of the morning to find yourself gasping for air?

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