Key messages

• Massive hemoptysis is present if blood loss is 600 ml/24 h or more and/or is life threatening.

• The most frequent causes of massive hemoptysis are tuberculosis, bronchiectasis, lung abscess, aspergillosis, and bronchial carcinoma.

• The source of bleeding is usually the bronchial circulation.

• Prognosis is closely related to the rate of bleeding.

• Published mortalities vary widely depending on inclusion criteria and cause.

Sleep Apnea

Sleep Apnea

Have You Been Told Over And Over Again That You Snore A Lot, But You Choose To Ignore It? Have you been experiencing lack of sleep at night and find yourself waking up in the wee hours of the morning to find yourself gasping for air?

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