Key messages

• Brain injury is classified as focal (intracerebral hemorrhage, subdural or epidural hematoma) or diffuse (diffuse axonal injury). Focal injuries are more amenable to surgical intervention.

• Primary injury occurs at the moment of injury and includes contusion, laceration, diffuse axonal injury, and epidural and subdural hemorrhage.

• Secondary injuries are due to secondary processes, such as those caused by excitatory amino acids, free radicals, and nitric oxide, or secondary insults, such as hypotension, hypoxia, hyponatremia, and hypothermia.

• Maintenance of cerebral perfusion pressure is important in maximizing the probability of a favorable outcome following traumatic brain injury.

Sleep Apnea

Sleep Apnea

Have You Been Told Over And Over Again That You Snore A Lot, But You Choose To Ignore It? Have you been experiencing lack of sleep at night and find yourself waking up in the wee hours of the morning to find yourself gasping for air?

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