• The greatest immediate vital risk is asphyxia, prompting rapid airway control.
• Bronchoscopy is usually the single most valuable emergency diagnostic procedure.
• Bronchoscopic tamponade with a balloon cathether can prevent extensive alveolar flooding.
• Arteriography localizes the source of bleeding and allows treatment by embolization.
• Surgery should be limited to cases where arteriography is unavailable or fails.
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