Ischemia and oxidants

Multiple organ failure is always preceded by varying degrees of physiological disturbance, the most frequent of which are hypotension, low-cardiac-output states, hypoxemia, sepsis, and direct tissue injury. Common to these conditions are immunoinflammatory cascade activation and an overt or occult reduction in systemic oxygen supply causing cell injury. Ischemia or severe hypoxia results in intracellular ATP depletion, failure of membrane ion pumps, calcium influx activating phospholipases and other enzymes, sodium influx causing cell swelling, and finally cell death. During ischemia, the cellular enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase is converted to xanthine oxidase, while at the same time one of its substrates, hypoxanthine, accumulates. Reperfusion with oxygenated blood results in the generation of highly reactive oxygen species (free radicals) from the action of xanthine oxidase on hypoxanthine. Free radicals cause cell injury by damaging membranes and nuclear DNA by direct oxidation.

Healthy Fat Loss For A Longer Life

Healthy Fat Loss For A Longer Life

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