Invasive investigations Coronary angiography

Coronary angiography and left ventriculography can be carried out by a Seldinger technique from the femoral artery or by cut down to the brachial artery. Recommendations for coronary angiography include the following.

1. Angina pectoris present and exercise tolerance low, with ECG changes suggestive of severe proximal disease.

2. Symptoms intolerable despite maximal medical therapy.

3. Chest pain and ECG changes occurring at rest (unstable angina).

4. A requirement for valve surgery in a patient over the age of approximately 50 years (younger in men with a positive family history).

5. The diagnosis of chest pain is uncertain and there is frequent referral for admission or consultation.

Sleep Apnea

Sleep Apnea

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