Perforations can occur in all organs forming the digestive tract. Patients can present to the intensive care unit (ICU) with a severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome or sepsis as a result of a perforated viscus. Alternatively, a perforation can develop in the course of a severe illness during ICU treatment, resulting in a deterioration for which the cause can be very difficult to determine. Causes of perforation and appropriate treatment strategies are summarized in T§bl§...,1.

Table 1 Synopsis of the cause of perforation and treatment strategy er organ

The most frequent cause of a perforated viscus is inflammation (large bowel, appendix, gallbladder) or erosion (peptic ulcer). However, perforations can be due to trauma, can be iatrogenic as a result of diagnostic interventions, or can be a postoperative complication due to anastomotic leakage ( Table .?).

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Table 2 Causes of perforation on ICU admission

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