Introduction

Positive-pressure ventilation (PPV) may impair or improve tissue oxygen delivery depending on its overall effects on cardiac output, ventilation-perfusion matching, and alveolar oxygenation. Clinically relevant heart-lung interactions occur because of associated changes in lung volume, intrathoracic pressure (ITP), or metabolic load. All forms of ventilation increase lung volume: spontaneous ventilation decreases ITP while PPV increases ITP, and spontaneous ventilatory efforts constitute exercise. While lung volume and ITP are rarely measured, airway pressures and tidal volume are routinely defined.

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