Introduction

Research in the field of pain has expanded considerably in the past 25 years. However, despite a better understanding of pain mechanisms, acute pain is not effectively treated. More than 50 per cent of medical and surgical in-patients experience 'excruciating pain' during their stay in hospital, and this is also a major problem in intensive care units (ICUs) (MyEr§y.,iD.d..,.P.ieya„k,.1994). While non-intubated patients can tell health care providers about their discomfort, intubated patients cannot effectively communicate and are at higher risk of inadequate analgesia.

Pain is 'an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage'. The biological function of pain is to prevent further tissue injury and to support the healing process. However, the body benefits only briefly from this effect, and prolonged pain can result in an adverse outcome. In addition to the surgical trauma, pain itself initiates a wide range of physiological and psychological alterations that initially help the body to maintain homeostasis. However, these effects may become harmful if pain remains untreated or undertreated and may cause morbidity and mortality ( Kehlet 1993).

Sleep Apnea

Sleep Apnea

Have You Been Told Over And Over Again That You Snore A Lot, But You Choose To Ignore It? Have you been experiencing lack of sleep at night and find yourself waking up in the wee hours of the morning to find yourself gasping for air?

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