Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation (IABP) utilizes the principle of diastolic counterpulsation, increasing diastolic coronary perfusion pressure (and oxygen supply), reducing systolic afterload (and oxygen demand), and thus improving the cardiac index. Experimental evidence in the 1950s demonstrated that there was an increase in coronary blood flow if the arrival of the arterial pressure wave to the coronary circulation was delayed to coincide with diastole ( Kantrowj,tz.┬žOd.,..Ka.Dirowjiz.1953).

The principles of IABP were elucidated in the 1960s, and the first clinical procedure was performed in 1968 ( Kant,r,owit.z...e.t.,al, 1968). The safety of IABP has continued to improve, but, although its efficacy has been clearly demonstrated, it should only be used when clearly indicated as it carries a definite morbidity and mortality.

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Sleep Apnea

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