Introduction

A system for evaluating the brain-injured patient is important for establishing the severity of injury, determining the need for surgery, monitoring progress, and assessing prognosis. A proper classification of the type of injury sustained allows reliable communication between medical personnel in the same and different centers regarding patients' conditions and outcomes. The clinical examination and the cranial CT scan are the two most important means of assessing these patients. The neurological examination should be brief and focused, and should be followed quickly by the CT scan. Laboratory tests such as complete blood count, serum electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glucose, toxicology screen, and arterial blood gases are usually performed in severely injured individuals. Cerebral angiography is occasionally used if a vascular injury is suspected. Near-infrared spectroscopy has been reported to be a good screening device for the presence of an intracranial hematoma. Intracranial pressure monitoring forms the basis for guiding subsequent therapies, and jugular venous oxygen saturation can yield important supplemental information on cerebral oxygenation. Other technologies, including positron emission tomography, single-photon emission CT, and microdialysis, are currently primarily of research interest.

Sleep Apnea

Sleep Apnea

Have You Been Told Over And Over Again That You Snore A Lot, But You Choose To Ignore It? Have you been experiencing lack of sleep at night and find yourself waking up in the wee hours of the morning to find yourself gasping for air?

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