Introduction

Intravenous fluids used for volume replenishment in critical care practice encompass the range of crystalloids and colloids. Crystalloids include:

1. saline (e.g. 0.9 per cent saline, Ringer's lactate (Hartmann's solution), and 0.18 per cent saline in 4 per cent glucose);

Colloids include:

1. albumin (e.g. 4.5 to 5 per cent and 20 to 25 per cent human albumin solution);

3. gelatin (e.g. 3.5 per cent polygeline (Hemaccel), 4 per cent succinylated gelatin (Gelofusin));

4. hydroxyethyl starch (e.g. 6 per cent hetastarch (eloHAES, Hespan), 6 and 10 per cent pentastarch (Pentaspan, HAES-steril)). Pharmacology

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