Current investigation has focused on in vivo analysis, i.e. sensors or probes which can be placed into the arterial blood stream and continuously monitor various metabolite or electrolyte concentrations. Continuous measurement and interpretation of changes can be made similarly to the current use of pulse oximetry. Electrochemical sensors and optical sensors have been developed in order to achieve this on-line continuous-analysis function. However, biocompatibility has limited their clinical efficacy.
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