These conditions usually constitute hypertensive urgencies or non-urgencies and are not associated with specific organ system damage. They are usually treated with oral medications, or simply observed. However, if the hypertension is particularly severe (e.g. diastolic blood pressure of 140 mmHg), unresponsive to oral medications, or associated with specific complications, parenteral medications are required. Intravenous labetalol, given by intermittent pulse therapy or constant infusion, has been successful in this setting. Second-line choices are the combined use of b-blockade with a vasodilator. Diazepam alone can be very effective for the hyperadrenergic state of cocaine or amphetamine toxicity (.Panac.ekJ.994).
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