Causes include arterial embolism, arterial thrombosis, venous thrombosis, and non-occlusive infarction. Approximately 50 per cent of cases are secondary to superior mesenteric artery occlusion, 25 per cent to non-occlusive infarction, and 5 to15 per cent to venous thrombosis.
The gut mucosa represents an important barrier, impairment of which may lead to a cascade of events ending in multisystem organ failure. Tonometric measurement of intestinal pH (pHi) has been shown to correlate well with blood flow and has a strong predictive value in forecasting surgical outcome ( Fiddian-Green and Baker
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