The equipment used to measure blood pressures comprises two components (Fig, 1).

1. The plumbing system consists of a fluid-filled catheter, stopcocks, pressure tubing, a continuous-flush device with its pressurized fluid source, and a transducer.

2. The monitoring system consists of the following electronic and display components: the excitation voltage source for the transducer, a zero control, an oscilloscope display, and a processor to derive measures for the digital display (systolic, diastolic, mean pressures, and heart rate).

Fig. 1 The plumbing and monitoring systems used for pressure monitoring. The zeroing methodology for a pressure-monitoring system is also shown.

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