The regulation of intracellular pH is mediated by activation or inhibition of carrier proteins which facilitate movement of charged particles across cell membranes
(T.0.n..n.es.se.n 1995). Carrier proteins can be modified by intracellular and extracellular pH, hormones (such as parathyroid hormone, epinephrine (adrenaline), and angiotensin II), and drugs (such as non-steroidal agents, amiloride, and furosemide (frusemide)) (I0.QD..e.SS.e.D 1995).
Intracellular acidosis has detrimental effects on important cellular functions because alteration of protein charge impairs ATP production. Furthermore, acidemia facilitates the detrimental effects of oxygen free radicals, Ca 2+, and other toxic products. Paradoxically, intracellular acidosis may also protect cells against ischemic injury by slowing the activity of most intracellular enzymes. Rapid normalization of intracellular pH during reperfusion can change cellular metabolism suddenly, generating free radicals and other toxins and inducing cell injury (T0QQ.eS.S.eQ 1995). The effects of acidemia on organ function are summarized in Table,,1...
Table 1 Potential effects and mechanisms of injury on vital organ function in acidemia
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