Contrast media nephropathy

Renal dysfunction following radiocontrast media is rare in patients with normal renal function but more common in those with renal disease, particularly diabetic nephropathy.

The most important prophylactic measure against contrast nephropathy is maintenance of hydration. Risk of renal dysfunction is also reduced by using smaller volumes of contrast and avoiding repeated doses at short time intervals. Use of non-ionic contrast media is associated with less renal dysfunction in patients with pre-existing renal disease. Prophylaxis with mannitol, furosemide, dopamine, and ANP has had variable results.

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Sleep Apnea

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