Clinical manifestations of hyponatremia

The signs and symptoms of hyponatremia are directly related to the development of cerebral edema, increased intracranial pressure, and cerebral hypoxia. The early symptoms of hyponatremia (from any cause) may include apathy, weakness, muscular cramps, nausea, vomiting, and headache. More advanced clinical manifestations include impaired response to stimuli, myoclonus, urinary incontinence, and hallucinations. More severe clinical manifestations of hyponatremia may include decorticate posturing, seizures, and respiratory arrest.

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