Cardiac injuries

The cardiac effects of electrical shock are due to current flowing through the myocardium during the vulnerable period of the cardiac cycle (T wave). They range from arrhythmias and ventricular fibrillation at 50 mA to cardiac asystole at current levels between 1 and 10 A. Ventricular fibrillation is the main cause of death. Thoracic muscle and diaphragmatic tetany may lead to asphyxia and cardiac arrest. Patchy areas of necrosis scattered diffusely throughout the myocardium with evidence of reperfusion injury, possibly due to coronary artery spasm and ischemia, may be seen. Cardiac malfunction after electrical injury has been confirmed by echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypokinesia and reduced ejection fraction. Persistence of biventricular malfunction rather than rapid recovery of cardiac function may occur.

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Sleep Apnea

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