Bioavailability is defined as the extent and rate of drug absorption. There is limited information on alteration of drug absorption in patients with renal dysfunction. Nausea, vomiting, impaired gastric motility, edema of the gastrointestinal tract, increased gastric pH secondary to elevated ammonia, and administration of aluminum-containing antacids can all diminish the bioavailability of oral medications. Little information is available regarding the effect of renal dysfunction on the absorption and bioavailability of medications given by non-oral routes such as rectal, intramuscular, and subcutaneous administration ( M,aíZk§...§,D,d...MiIIi.k§D,..!992).

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Sleep Apnea

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