Nonvital immature teeth late presentation

CLINICAL PRESENTATION CLINICAL MANAGEMENT Clinical technique Definitive rooi filling technique Variations of the technique MOOES OF HEALING THE NATURE OF THE APICAL BARRIER FACTORS' AFFECTING BARKIKR FORM ATION Infection within the root canal Root maturity Size of the apical radioluccncy COMPLICATIONS Escape of calcium hydroxide paste into the periapical tissues Incomplete barrier formation Cystic change FURTHER READING

Electrical vitality testing

A variety of electrical devices have been developed for testing pulp vitality. One design which has been found to give consistent and reliable results is the Analytic Technology pulp tester (Fig. 2.7). The instrument delivers an electric current in a continuous series of 10 millisecond pulses with Lhe stimulus level indicated by a digital read-out with a scale range of 0-80. The tooth is dried, the conducting tip of the tester is coated with a suitable electrolyte (e.g. acidulated phosphate...

Pulpectomy

This is the complete removal of the dental pulp. It is usually indicated when the tooth is mature (i.e. in children older than 13-14 years of age) when the pulpal exposure is more than 8 hours old and or when there is an associated luxation injury with probable damage to the apical blood vessels. A common assumption is that by 10-11 years of age, upper permanent incisors have a mature root with Fig, 4,29 Schematic representation of essentially mature tooth prior to root canal therapy. Fig, 4,29...

Response of pulp tissue exposed due to trauma

Our understanding of the natural history of pulpal change following traumatic exposure is based on primate studies. Exposure of the tooth pulp following trauma causes laceration of the pulp at the exposure site and bleeding. Although in contact with the saliva at the exposure site, bacterial colonization of the superficial pulp tissue docs not take place immediately. Nevertheless, exposed pulps rarely heal spontaneously and if left untreated, necrosis and infection are almost invariably the...

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Deciduous teeth will re-erupt over a period of a few months. Only if there is clear evidence that the intruded tooth is in contact with the underlying successional tooth should consideration be given to removing the intruded tooth. A relatively unusual complication is infection, in which case the intruded tooth teeth should be extracted, (d) extruded deciduous teeth are usually extracted. Repositioning such teeth may result in damage to underlying permanent teeth. In addition, providing an...

Oral and Dental Trauma in Children and Adolescents

The Eastman Dental Institute and The Institute of Child Health. University of London Senior Leeturer Honorary Consul taut. Department of Orthodontics and Paediatric Dentistry, Guy's and St Thomas's Medical and Dental School, University of London Oxford New York Tokyo OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 1996 Oxford Urihersily Press, Walton Strei't. Oxford OX2 6 DI' Oxford .'Vew York Athens Autiklund Rmiijkok Bombaii Cahuttu Gape T Vi'fi Diii- .SVrfiriifn Oifii Huren llong...

Type I healing healing with hard tissue

Approximately one-third of all root fractured teeth exhibit healing with hard tissue union, the coronal and apical fragments being united by external deposition of cementuni, internal deposition of dentine and by both cementuni and dentine growing into the fracture line to a greater or lesser extent (Fig. S.7). Histologically, the hard tissue iu the fracture line is not solid but interspersed with connective tissue which reduces its radiopacity. so thai the fracture line often remains visible...

Minimal puipotomy partial pulpotomycornuectomy

This the procedure where part of the superficial coronal pulp is removed in order to eliminate inflamed and contaminated tissue that has been exposed to the oral cavity. The pulp wound is then dressed with a calcium hydroxide preparation in order to protect the pulp from further injury and permit healing and repair (Fig. 4.13). The calcium hydroxide preparation again may be a suspension or non-setting preparation such as Hypocal, or a resin-based, rapid-setting material such as Dycal. Whichever...

Injuries affecting the deciduous dentition

Healing Tissue Labia

Most injuries to the deciduous dentition take place between the ages of 1 and i years (See Fig. 1.1) when children are first learning to walk, and then, later, to ran, climb, and play adventurously. The thinner and more elastic alveolar bone found in these young children means that teeth are more likely to be displaced, with associated fracture of the alveolar plate, than suffer crown or root fracture, in older children (4-6 years), physiological resorption, which reduces the root length, also...

Operative techniques for treating exposed pulp

The four techniques available for treating the exposed pulp are 2. Minimal pulpotomy partial pulpotomy cornucctomy . 3. Cervical radical pulpotomy. This is the procedure where an exposed dental pulp is covered with a dressing or cement in order to protect the pulp from additional injury and permit healing and repair Fig. 4.12 . With regard to fractured teeth it is the simplest of the four procedures. A calcium hydroxide preparation is used which may he a suspension or non-setting preparation...

Precautions During Suluring

There seems to be a surprising diversity of views on the management of soft tissue injuries, particularly lacerations and even more particularly, lacerations aClec ting the tongue. However, there do seem to be some basic principles which should enable decisions to be made that are in the best overall interests of the child or young patient. The first will be to ensure that there is cessation of bleeding. In fact, by the time most patients attend a dental surgeon, the problem will usually have...

Periapical radiography

This is the most common view if is easy to carry out and provides excellent resolution of the tooth and surrounding structures. Two methods are in current use the paralleling technique and the bisecting angle technique. The paralleling new is recommended as it provides an accurate image with minimal distortion. The film is placed in the mouth at right angles to the plane of the tooth using a special film holder. This enables the film and long axis of the tooth fo be parallel to each other,...