The Secret to Pain Free Breastfeeding
At times it may be medically indicated to perform radionuclide imaging in breast feeding mothers. Radioisotopes are excreted in breast milk and expose the infant to radiation. The radiation safety approach is to either pump the breasts before the injection of radioisotope and store the milk, or if this is not feasible, collect milk and allow for appropriate decay before giving the milk to the infant. Breast milk can be stored in the refrigerator for 5 d, or frozen for up to 6 mo. The physician or RSO should determine how long (e.g., 48 h for Tc-99m-agents) the milk should be stored for adequate decay. There is no need to discard the milk. For exams that are scheduled ahead of time, the policy and method should be explained to nursing mother. It is not always possible to pump ahead of time. Consequently, it is important to discuss the storage and time required for decay with the mother prior to performing the imaging procedure. If you think you may be pregnant or if you are breast...
Empirical experience supporting the notion that breast milk may protect against diarrheal diseases of children was reviewed by Hanson et al. (1988) Analyses of infant mortality in diarrhoea from Sweden and Finland in the early 19 th century showed that there was a peak during the summer. This increased mortality was related to the frequent 'summer diarrhoea' during the warm months of July and August. But this peak of mortality was primarily seen in areas where mothers did not breast-feed. In nearby areas where breast-feeding was the rule, there was no increase, or only a minor increase, in the infant mortality in diarrhoea during the summer. The difference did not relate primarily to socioeconomic factors since breast-feeding could be seen in very poor populations, whereas in the same area the farmers' wives had to leave their babies at home to be fed cow's milk through an unhygienic cow horn while working in the fields during the harvest. The earliest scientifically documented...
Includes chapters on BALT and pulmonary diseases, mucosal immunity in asthma, respiratory infections, and inhalant allergy (Chapters 43-46). Section G presents information on the oral cavity, upper airway, and mucosal regions in the head and neck (Chapters 47-50), as well as ocular immunity, tonsils and adenoids, and middle ear. Sections H and I are devoted to mammary glands and genitourinary tract, respectively. These sections consist of chapters on milk, immunological effects of breast feeding (Chapters 51 and 52), IgA nephropathy, immunology of female and male reproductive tracts, endocrine regulation of genital immunity, mucosal immunopathophysiol-ogy of HIV infection, and genital infections relative to maternal and infant disease (Chapters 53-58).
Cells are required for the repair of defects during ovulation. Hence, ovulatory events could promote tumor progression by stimulating the proliferation of ovarian surface epithelial precursor cells. Consistently, early menarche, late menopause, nulliparity, and the use of fertility-stimulating drugs is associated with increased risk for ovarian carcinoma. In contrast, multiple pregnancies, prolonged breast-feeding, and the use of contraceptives decrease the risk.
The importance of the proper diet in supporting brain function also gets support from studies done on the effects of breast-feeding on intellectual development. In general, it was found that the longer children had been breast-fed, the higher they scored on a variety of intellectual performance tests. Remember that the longer an infant is breast-fed, the less that infant will be ingesting the most common substitutes for breast milk sugary fruit juices or formula-based milk sugars. This is a benefit above and beyond the enormous benefit of the support and stimulation given to the infant's immune system from the immune factor-rich colostrum, or first milk from the mother's breast. Not surprisingly, breast-feeding also appears to decrease the incidence of the common childhood illnesses. Wilson et al. published that breast-feeding and the late introduction of solids into the infant's diet may have a beneficial effect on both childhood health as well as subsequent adult disease.6
The guidelines discussed in this chapter can be applied to everyone throughout their lifetime. Identify when your energy needs are changing (i.e., changes in physical activity levels, pregnancy, breast feeding) and adjust your diet appropriately to maintain your health and fitness. Each individual should eat the appropriate number of servings from each food group based on their EER (refer to Chapter 1 and Table 3-2). Seek the help of a Registered Dietitian if you have any concerns about your diet or the diet of a family member. Even if you do not cook your meals or if you eat in the galley, you can make healthy food choices (see Appendix A). When eating in the galley, ask for the Healthy Navy Options menu items (available in the larger galleys and ships). Make high-fat foods the exception rather than the rule in your diet.
The etiology of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis has been elusive, and questions regarding the pathogenesis of the disease have led to many proposals, including some related to diet. Over the years there have been theories that a cow's milk allergy was an underlying factor in these diseases. Other related proposals have implicated lack of breast feeding. High sugar consumption and lack of dietary fiber have been suggested to be associated with the occurrence of IBD 19 .
The burden of disease is borne disproportionately by the poor. In addition, the impact of disease on education is greatest for the poor. In the preceding review we saw examples where lack of breast feeding, or otitis media infection led to cognitive impairments only for children of the least educated mothers. There are also examples where the impact of one condition is greater for children suffering from other problems of health or nutrition 105, 106 . Conversely, preschool health interventions tend to provide the greatest benefit to disadvantaged children. For example, long-term educational benefits of a nutritional supplementation program in Guatemala were found only for those children of low socio-economic status. Many other examples exist in the literature on school-age children. For example, giving breakfast to children in Jamaican schools improved cognitive function on the same day to a greater extent for children with chronic malnutrition 107 . Similarly, gender differences in...
Many foods ingested by children mimic the appearance of blood. Food coloring is contained in fruit juices and gelatins. Breast-feeding infants may swallow maternal blood from cracked nipples. A. Swallowed Maternal Blood. Relatively common occurrence in infants during delivery or after breast-feeding from mother's irritated nipple. Common presentation is a well-appearing infant with hematemesis.
How has infant been feeding Infants with poor feeding are at risk for dehydration and jaundice. In the first week of life, many infants and mothers have difficulty with breast-feeding, especially when infants are born before 38 weeks' gestation. Inadequate feeding may result in delayed stooling, which, in turn, may contribute to increased enterohepatic circulation of bilirubin.
Distinct from breast-milk jaundice (which occurs at 1 week of life). Breast-feeding jaundice occurs in first week of life among breast-fed infants and is believed to be due to relative lack of calories or dehydration, or both. C. Breast-Milk Jaundice. Infant presents with indirect hyperbilirubinemia between 7 days and several months of life. Thought to be due to one or more ill-defined factors in breast milk that interfere with metabolism of bilirubin. Levels of indirect hyperbilirubinemia may be as high as 10-30 mg dL. Temporary cessation of breastfeeding results in a drop in serum bilirubin level.
Leflunomide is teratogenic in animal models it is absolutely contraindicated in pregnancy, in women who may become pregnant, and in breast-feeding women. Because of its long half-life, the M1 metabolite of leflunomide may remain in the body for up to 2 years therefore, a drug elimination procedure using choles-tyramine should be used before any attempt at pregnancy. This drug is not recommended for use in children. Caution should be used when administering this drug to individuals with renal or hepatic disease, heavy alcohol use, or immunosuppression.
In a pre-operative setting, high FDG tumour uptake was observed particularly in ductal carcinomas (14) of all stages. The quantity of FDG uptake in tumours was positively correlated with the pathologic grade, and the proliferation index (Ki-67) (14, 15). However, FDG uptake itself is not tumour-specific, and the distinction between malignant and benign breast cells can be difficult- particularly in situations of breast hypermetabolism (breast feeding, mastitis) (16, 17). Also, false positive results can be caused by the accumulation of FDG in activated inflammatory cells such as granulocytes and macrophages (4).
Given the growing rise in prevalence of celiac disease, there is interest in trying to prevent the development of celiac disease. There are studies that suggest breast-feeding and delayed introduction of gluten into the diet may reduce the risk of developing celiac disease 82, 83 . However, while these observations make sense, there are other reports that suggest early introduction of gluten in a defined period of time in infancy may also reduce the risk 84, 85 . There is also interest
Active liver disease, hepatic adenoma, thrombophlebitis, history of or active thromboembolic disorder, cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease, known or suspected breast cancer, undiagnosed abnormal vaginal bleeding, jaundice with past pregnancy or hormone use, pregnancy, breast-feeding, smoking in women over age 35
A relative contraindication exists for women of childbearing age. Contraception during and up to six months after the end of the therapy with 224RaCl must be planned. The reason is that 224RaCl crosses the placenta and deposits in the skeleton of the unborn child. In cases in which radioactive drug treatment of women in childbearing age is necessary, pregnancy must be excluded. Data concerning the transmission to breast milk are not available. Breastfeeding must be discontinued in cases where the drug is to be administered to a breastfeeding mother.
Breast milk is widely acknowledged to be the most complete form of nutrition for infants. Breastfeeding poses multiple benefits for infants including health, growth, immunity, and development. Specific infant benefits of breastfeeding include decreased episodes of diarrhea, respiratory infections, and ear infections. Breastfeeding poses multiple maternal benefits as well, including a reduction in postpartum bleeding, earlier return to prepregnancy weight, reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer, and reduced risk of osteoporosis 34 . In order to encourage breastfeeding, the Health and Human Services Healthy People 2010 initiative targets increasing the percentage of mothers who breastfeed to 75 in the early postpartum period, 50 at six months, and 15 at one year 35 . Professional medical organizations encourage breastfeeding as well 36, 37 . The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) considers breastfeeding to be the ideal method of feeding and nurturing infants and recommends that...
There are a number of articles of drugs in breast milk including reviews and studies of a specific medication. The AAP has published consensus documents listing drugs and chemicals that are transfered into breast milk 48-50 . These publications include recommendations about drug use during breastfeeding as well. In addition, textbooks and other references are available that provide information about the use of specific drugs in breast feeding, including data of safety and drug transfer into milk 51, 52 .
Ethical considerations for studying drugs in lactating women must be tended to in the study design and when conducting studies. Since clinical lactation studies that do not expose the breast-fed infant to drug can be done, usually the ethical hurdles are not as problematic as with pregnancy. In general, if breast-fed infants are included in clinical lactation studies, women should already have made the decision to use the particular drug of interest to treat a medical condition during breastfeeding and have made the decision to continue to breastfeed in order for a study to proceed. The
In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control recommend that HIV-infected mothers avoid breast-feeding to prevent the transmission of the virus to their infants. The risk of this type of vertical transmission ranges from 5 to 20 longer durations of breast-feeding, mastitis, and abscesses are associated with increased risk. In developing countries in which safe infant formula is not readily available, the avoidance of breast-feeding can increase the infant's risk of death from malnutrition and food-borne infection. The World Health Organization recommends that under these circumstances exclusive breast-feeding should be maintained for the first months of life and discontinued when replacement feeding is acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable, and safe.
It is recommended that echinacea not be taken by anyone for more than 8 continuous weeks, and most clinical use is under 2 weeks' duration. Echinacea has not yet been shown to be safe in pregnant or breastfeeding women and small children. No specific herb-drug interactions are reported, but for theoretical reasons those taking immunosuppressant drugs should avoid echinacea.
Current opinion is that HTLV-1 infection is best controlled in endemic areas by transmission-blocking measures such as screening blood donors and refraining from breast-feeding, but where this is not possible, an env-based vaccine may be of some use. However, at the present time, no such vaccine is undergoing clinical trials.
Epidemiological data indicate that the PTLV is transmitted in utero to a very small degree, but at a rate of 10 to 30 percent via breastfeeding. The virus is also transmitted via sexual intercourse, with male to female infection occurring much more effectively than the opposite. The virus is also spread via intravenous drug abuse and the transfusion of cellular but not plasma products. There are no reported incidences of infection occurring via needle stick or other laboratory or clinical work-related injuries.12,16
Thyroid function should be assessed in women with hyperemesis gravidarum. Women known to have Graves' disease may decide on definitive treatment of their condition prior to becoming pregnant. If Graves' disease is diagnosed during pregnancy, it is important to use the smallest dose of antithyroid drugs by reviewing regularly to maintain maternal concentrations of free thyroid hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone within their respective normal ranges. This is to avoid fetal hypothyroidism and goiter. Most recommend that carbimazole should be discontinued 4 weeks before the expected date of delivery to avoid any possibility of fetal hypothyroidism at the time of maximum brain development. If subtotal thyroidectomy is necessary because of poor drug compliance or hypersensitivity, it is most safely performed in the middle trimester. Radio-iodine is contraindicated because it invariably induces fetal hypothyroidism. If antithyroid agents are given postdelivery, breast feeding is not...
The United States prominent effect of breastfeeding. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 44 137 Fawzi WW, Msamanga GI, Hunter D, Renjifo B, Antelman G, Bang H, Manji K, Kapiga S, Mwakagile D, Essex M et al (2002) Randomized trial of vitamin supplements in relation to transmission of HIV-1 through breastfeeding and early child mortality. AIDS 16 1935-1944
Immunization and breast-feeding Breast-fed infants should be immunized according to routinely recommended schedules. Although live vaccines multiply within the mother's body, the majority has not been demonstrated to be excreted in human milk. Rubella vaccine virus might be excreted in human milk. However, the virus usually does not infect the infant. Where infection has occurred in an infant, it has been mild because the virus is attenuated. Inactivated, recombinant, subunit, polysaccharide, conjugate vaccines and toxoids pose no risk for mothers who are breast-feeding or for their infants 8, 17 .
Women with venous thromboembolism presenting during pregnancy or the puerperium should initially be treated with a continuous intravenous infusion of heparin for 5 to 10 days according to current protocols for non-pregnant patients. If the thromboembolic event occurs antepartum, subcutaneous concentrated heparin (20 000 lU ml) should be given into the lateral abdominal wall every 12 h until delivery. The regimen should be dose adjusted to prolong the activated partial thromboplastin time measured 6 h after the injection to a value 1.5 times greater than control. To minimize the risk of recurrence, Coumadin is then administrated postpartum for at least 6 weeks (3 months if thromboembolism complicates the puerperium). Neither heparin nor Coumadin therapy is a contraindication to breast feeding. Postpartum suppression of lactation with estrogen markedly increases the incidence of thromboembolism and is contraindicated.
The structural theory the dualdrive theory and the Oedipus complex The id infantile sexuality and the Oedipus complex
Freud described the oral phase as essentially coinciding with the infantile stage of breast feeding, the anal phase as coinciding with struggles around sphincter control, and the Oedipal stage as developing gradually during the second and through the fourth years, and culminating in the fourth and the fifth years of life. This last phase would then be followed by more general repressive processes under the dominance of the installation of the superego, leading to a 'latency phase' roughly corresponding to the school years, and finally, to a transitory reactivation of all unconscious childhood conflicts under the dominance of Oedipal issues during puberty and early adolescence.
Contraindications are pregnancy and breastfeeding adolescents with still-active metaphyseal growth plates history of hematopoietic diseases or cancer recent bone fractures impaired liver function acute infections and preceeding treatment with drugs toxic to the bone marrow (Table 4).
If a patient states that she is, or may be, pregnant or that she is breastfeeding, a radionuclide imaging study can only be performed after consulting with the RSO and the medical director. All benefits and risks must be weighed and discussed with the patient before proceeding with the procedure. The discussion should be documented in writing.
If you are breastfeeding, you must stop for several days before treatment. After treatment, you cannot restart breastfeeding for that child. You may breastfeed with the birth of your next child. Lactating women who wish to be treated should be instructed to discontinue breastfeeding. Treatment should be withheld until lactation ceases. It may be possible to detect radioactivity in breast milk for several months following treatment. Patients should be instructed not to resume breastfeeding until the birth of another child.
Is patient's growth and development within normal parameters Failure to thrive (FTT) and hypernatremia may be present in patients with chronic renal insufficiency related to obstructive uropathy or renal dysplasia. Hypernatremia and FTT also are observed with ineffective breast-feeding or child neglect, or both.
Neonatal deaths and stillbirths stem from poor maternal health, inadequate care during pregnancy, inappropriate management of complications during pregnancy and delivery, poor hygiene during delivery and the first critical hours after birth, and lack of newborn care. Several factors such as women's status in society, their nutritional status at the time of conception, early childbearing, too many closely spaced pregnancies and harmful practices, such as inadequate cord care, letting the baby stay wet and cold, discarding colostrum and feeding other food, are deeply rooted in the cultural fabric of societies and interact in ways that are not always clearly understood.
A patient who is improving may conceive despite having a suboptimal weight and still not menstruating. (81) A mother may also develop the illness after having borne children. In a series of eight mothers, nine out of 13 of their children suffered from food deprivation, identified by reductions in weight for age and in height for age as shown on Tanner-Whitehouse charts.(96) The anorexic mothers had no intention of abusing the children and indeed were affectionate towards them. They adopted different ways to ration their children's food intake according to their age. They might prolong breast feeding, dilute the bottle feeds, reduce the amount of food available in the home, confine eating to meal times, forbid the consumption of sweets, and prevent others giving them food. The privation of the children resulted from the anorexic mothers' abnormal concern with body size being extended to their children. An important part of the management was the recognition of the children at risk...
Study participants may include mother-infant pairs or lactating women alone. Optimally, the study participants would be representative of the typical patient population for the drug to be studied. Maternal factors with significant potential to affect lactation (e.g., weight, gravity, parity, stage of lactation, postpartum status, episodes and duration of previous breastfeeding) or the PK of a drug to be studied (e.g., diet, smoking, alcohol intake, concomitant medications, ethnicity, other medical conditions) should be considered. Inclusion and exclusion criteria should be carefully considered and need to be tailored to the study. Infant factors (e.g., age, term vs. preterm neonates, extent of breastfeeding, and age related changes in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) should be considered as well. Uniform diagnostic criteria should be applied to all patients to ensure similarity of diagnosis for which treatment is being given to reduce disease-specific variability...
The use of cytoreductive therapy in pregnant patients with an MPD is associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion, congenital malformation, premature delivery, and intrauter-ine growth retardation128 (recently reviewed in Ref. 125). Fetal malformations and fetal loss have been reported with busulfan and HU taken in the first trimester and teratogenicity has been demonstrated in animals treated with HU.129 Interferon-alpha has been increasingly used in patients with MPD. There have been no reports of adverse effects on the fetus, and successful pregnancies have been reported.130,131 Interferon-alpha does not appear to cross the placenta to any significant extent 132 however, teratogenic or other adverse effects cannot be entirely ruled out and it should be used with caution. As many of the agents used to treat PV are excreted in human breast milk a decision should be made whether to discontinue breastfeeding or discontinue the drug, weighing the importance of the drug to...
Lactation is associated with a reduction in breast cancer risk. Nursing results in a delay in the reestablishment of ovulation after a full-term pregnancy. The Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer conducted a pooled analysis of 47 epidemiologic studies done in 30 countries and found a decrease of 4.3 in breast cancer risk associated with each 12 months of breastfeeding, in addition to an independent decrease in risk associated with bearing each child.25
Among perinatal factors of interest, recent studies have linked high birth weight29 and a negative history of breastfeeding in infancy30 to an increased breast cancer risk, while most of the studies regarding birth rank and maternal age reported little or no association.31 Fetal growth has been positively associated with concentrations of estrogens at the extremes of the corresponding distributions, although evidence for an association throughout the usual range of fetal growth is not clear.32 Recent studies suggest that the role of early life factors in determining breast cancer risk may be more apparent in younger women, but this may be due to better recall in this group.33 Differences in caloric intake, availability of specific nutrients, or possible hormonal and immunologic consequences of having been breastfed have been proposed as possible causes of a decreased breast cancer risk.33-35
Problematic patients present with a variety of conditions, but most can be managed effectively. The risk of an acute idiosyncratic reaction to contrast material can be reduced in high-risk patients through the use of nonionic RICM and the use of premedication with steroids and antihistamines. In patients at risk for acute nonidio-syncratic reactions, caution should be employed in the administration of RICM, and other diagnostic tests should be considered. Hydration is widely accepted as an intervention to reduce the risk of CIN. As premedication to lower the risk of CIN, acetylcysteine has a favorable cost and adverse event profile although definitive proof of effectiveness awaits additional investigations. Other CIN premedication regimens remain to be proved effective, and some are complicated by a relatively high number of adverse events. Delayed reactions are nonspecific and it is often unclear if they truly are caused by RICM administration fortunately serious delayed reactions...
At the beginning of the 21st century, half of the world's women still give birth at home without skilled care. This global average conceals large differences among and within countries, between rural and urban settings, between rich and poor. Furthermore, not all institutions offering maternity services meet minimum standards for safe childbirth and newborn care absence of health-care providers, outdated knowledge and inadequate skills, lack of essential medicines, supplies and equipment, overcrowding and inadequate hygiene are far too common.
Deficiencies of micronutrients are common in HIV-infected persons. Micronutrient impairment is causally associated with the course of HIV infection and immune dysfunction. This occurs due to malabsorption, altered metabolism, gut infection, and altered gut barrier function. Selenium deficiency increases the virulence of HIV and enhancing disease progression, while supplementation reduces high levels of IL-8 and TNF-a 136 . Vitamin A may increase the risk of HIV-1 transmission through breast milk 137 . In contrast, multivitamin supplementation of breastfeeding mothers with B, C, and E reduces child mortality and HIV-1 transmission through breastfeeding among immunologically and nutritionally compromised women. Supplementation in children with HIV-1 improves overall health.
The inability of a patient to excrete drugs and other waste can be life threatening. The elimination of drugs through sweat, saliva, and the lungs is of minor interest in this subcourse. Of course, the excretion of drugs in breast milk is of concern to mothers who breast-feed their infants. As a rule, drugs that are weakly basic are more likely to be excreted in breast milk, because the milk is slightly acidic therefore, the basic drugs are more soluble in breast milk.
The tricyclics have been used in pregnancy and do not carry risk of fetal malformation. For SSRIs and newer antidepressants the situation is less clear as sufficient experience is lacking they usually carry warnings against use in pregnancy. Accumulating experience suggests that fluoxetine is safe. (87) Mood stabilizers are contraindicated lithium, carbamazepine, and valproate all have some risk of fetal malformation. Where antidepressants are used at the time of delivery there may be complications of anaesthesia and fetal sedation, and these should be anticipated. Most antidepressants and mood stabilizers appear in breast milk, but in small quantities. Breast feeding should be discussed with the patient.
Pregnancy and breastfeeding are absolute contraindications for radioiodine treatment and a pregnancy test must be performed in all women of childbearing age. A thorough explanation of the whole procedure should be made (including potential complications and side effects as well as explanation of the measures to reduce radiation exposure to family members or to the general public). Women of childbearing age should be advised against pregnancy in the first 6 to 12 months after treatment.
Studies have shown that a protein in milk can act as an antigen causing the immune system to dysfunction and begin to attack the beta cells of the pancreas. This process can trigger Type I diabetes when infants are fed cow's milk, especially in the first year. For infants from families who have a history of diabetes, breast-feeding is an alternative.
All the guidelines concerning ethics in biomedical research in Europe or the USA are more or less similar and demand adherence to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki, approval of the trial by an Ethics Committee, obtaining of informed consent from patients and compliance with Good Clinical Practice guidelines. These latter include obligations of sponsors, obligations of clinical investigators, guidelines in case of a serious adverse event, necessity for quality control procedures of the study (monitoring, audit) and strict conditions for performing a trial in vulnerable subjects, especially trials without direct individual benefit. For example, such trials cannot be carried out in children, except if there is absence of foreseeable risk, it is useful for other children of the same age and condition, and it is impossible to conduct it in any other way. The consent of both the parents and the child (if possible) must be obtained. These restrictions are identical for pregnant,...
Assess the patient the same way as described previously in this chapter for a patient taking penicillin. Do not use tetracyclines if the patient is pregnant or breastfeeding. Furthermore, tetracyclines should not be given to children under 8 years of age because tetracyclines can permanently mottle and discolor the teeth and decrease linear skeletal growth in both children and the fetus.
Immunity is natural or artificial, active or passive. Active immunity occurs naturally in response to infections or other natural exposure to antigens, and artificially in response to vaccine administration. Passive immunity occurs naturally during pregnancy and breast-feeding, and artificially through administration of immune serum globulin or hyperimmune globulin.
Doreen is a 34-year-old, single mother of four, with a history of two prior hospitalizations for suicide attempts during mixed states. Doreen entered IPSRT during a mixed-state episode following the birth of her fourth child. She had stopped her mood stabilizers during the pregnancy and had not yet resumed them, despite instructions from her psychiatrist to restart them immediately after delivery (Doreen did not plan to breast-feed). The initial phase of treatment emphasized psychoeducation, including the importance of following the psychiatrist's recommendations in order to prevent another hospitalization (the patient was not currently suicidal). It was immediately apparent that Doreen's erratic sleep schedule, driven by the needs of her newborn infant, contributed substantially to her symptoms. Thus, the therapist moved rapidly to help Doreen enlist assistance from her extended family. Doreen's mother and several sisters each agreed to stay with Doreen one night per week in order to...
The major contraindications in the use of antidepressants arise from the interaction of the pharmacological effects of antidepressant treatment with a comorbid condition of the patient or with diet or drug interactions. As mentioned above, the most serious contraindications arise from the use of irreversible MAOIs in patients taking other drugs or a diet that interacts and potentiates monoamine function resulting in a hypertensive crisis. A major contraindication is the use of MAOI in patients who receive anaesthesia.(59) Patients on MAOIs should carry a card for medical emergencies warning of drug interactions. Drugs that potentiate serotonin can interact with SSRIs to give the serotonin syndrome. The more relative contraindications involve the interaction of the side-effect profile of the antidepressant treatment with either the primary medical disease or with other medications that the patient may be taking. Another relative contraindication is the use of antidepressants during...
Craniosacral manipulation by an osteopath has cured middle ear infection caused by restriction of the respiratory apparatus. While fluid is not able to drain because of the restriction, it stagnates and bacteria is allowed to breed. For more information contact the Cranial Academy, 8606 Allisonville Road, Suite 130, Indianapolis, Indiana 46250, 317-595-0411. Breast-feeding has shown to prevent middle ear infection 41 the longer the infant is nursed the greater the protection. The reason is likely due to antibodies in the milk.
Prolactin serum levels increase during pregnancy and breast-feeding, at least immediately after the birth. In both men and women, prolactin increases after sleep starts, continues to increase during the night, and increases markedly during stress. Prolactin release is episodic during the day. More than 20 hormones and neu-rotransmitters affect prolactin production, but the dominant physiological control is primarily negative, mediated by dopamine from the hypothalamus. Dopaminergic agonists inhibit prolactin release and antagonists, such as the antipsychotic drugs, increase release.
New Mothers Guide to Breast Feeding
For many years, scientists have been playing out the ingredients that make breast milk the perfect food for babies. They've discovered to day over 200 close compounds to fight infection, help the immune system mature, aid in digestion, and support brain growth - nature made properties that science simply cannot copy. The important long term benefits of breast feeding include reduced risk of asthma, allergies, obesity, and some forms of childhood cancer. The more that scientists continue to learn, the better breast milk looks.