The Insulinlike Growth Factor1 Ligand

The IGF-1 gene is located on chromosome 12q22 and codes for A and B domains which are homologous to the A and B chains of the insulin hormone. The liver produces the largest amount of IGF-1 as a result of GH stimulation and is the main contributor to serum IGF-1. Serum IGF-1 can stimulate normal breast cells and promote malignant transformation as well as breast cancer progression via an endocrine fashion (18). Many studies have also shown that stromal cells adjacent to breast cancer cells can produce IGF-1 locally to stimulate tumour cells via an paracrine or autocrine mechanism (19-23). In fact, several studies have suggested that local tissue production could be an important source of IGF-1 which may play a role in growth of normal tissue (24) as well breast cancer development and progression (20, 25-27).

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