Prostaglandindependent mechanisms

COX-2 expression leads to the synthesis of prostaglandins. These molecules are local hormones which help regulate essential cellular physiological processes. They have short half-lives, often only minutes, and can alter the activity of both the cells in which they are synthesised and that of adjacent cells. There is clear evidence of a link between high prostag-landin levels and cancer. These molecules stimulate cell proliferation (68, 69), and in particular have been shown to induce mitogenesis of mammary epithelial cells (70). Conversely, they are also able to suppress proliferation of immune cells, and alter antigen processing by dendritic cells, which may account in part for the ability of malignant cells to evade immunosurveillance (71, 72). Prostaglandin production is higher in lesions associated with the presence of neoplastic cells in tumour lymphatics, blood vessels, and axillary nodes. Prostaglandin levels appear to be greater in sites of nodal metastases compared to primary tumour areas, and are elevated in tumours of moderate-high grade. Notably, steroid receptor-negative tumours may produce more prostaglandin than lesions expressing steroid receptors (73).

f prostaglandins t CAMP

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