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Figure 1. Immunohistochemical staining for ALCAM (1:40 dilution; Novocastra Laboratories) (1A and 1B) and N-cadherin (1:80 dilution; Calbiochem-Novabiochem Corp.) (1C and 1D). Normal breast ducts and acini exhibit staining for ALCAM (1A) in a membranous and cytoplasmic distribution, and staining for N-cadherin (1C) in a cytoplasmic distribution with some nuclear staining. Invasive breast carcinoma exhibits strong staining for ALCAM (1B) in a membranous and cytoplasmic distribution, and less intense staining for N-cadherin (1D) in a cytoplasmic distribution.

Figure 1. Immunohistochemical staining for ALCAM (1:40 dilution; Novocastra Laboratories) (1A and 1B) and N-cadherin (1:80 dilution; Calbiochem-Novabiochem Corp.) (1C and 1D). Normal breast ducts and acini exhibit staining for ALCAM (1A) in a membranous and cytoplasmic distribution, and staining for N-cadherin (1C) in a cytoplasmic distribution with some nuclear staining. Invasive breast carcinoma exhibits strong staining for ALCAM (1B) in a membranous and cytoplasmic distribution, and less intense staining for N-cadherin (1D) in a cytoplasmic distribution.

patients with breast cancer (91). Prognostic value could not be established, however (91). In a study of 92 patients with breast cancer and 31 age-matched controls with benign breast disease O'Hanlon et al. (92) found that serum levels of VCAM-1 were elevated in patients with Stage 4 disease compared with controls. In addition, elevated serum levels of VCAM-1 in patients with Stage 2 disease were predictive of decreased survival, even when corrected for T and N status. In an immunohistochemical study, Madhavan et al. (93) found that VCAM-1 level (downregulation) is an independent predictor of nodal metastasis.

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