Chemotherapeutic agents commonly used in MBC

Anthracycline antibiotics (doxorubicin and epirubicin) are among the most active drugs in MBC and cause anti-tumour effects by a variety of mechanisms including generation of oxygen free radicals and impairing DNA replication. Recent studies have conferred that overexpression of topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A) gene may provide as a rational predictive marker for response to anthracycline therapy. It is often co-amplified in 35 of tumours with HER-2 amplification. But its level of overexpression...

The Role of HGFA in Cancer

We have previously reported that HGFA is expressed in a number of human cancer cell lines, including breast, colon, prostate, lung, and liver (106). In addition, we have also demonstrated that the expression of HGFA is upregulated in human breast cancer tissues compared with normal background breast tissues, whereas the levels of the HGFA inhibitors are reduced in breast cancer tissues (26) (Figure 5). This observation is also reported in colorectal carcinomas, where an upregulation of HGFA is...

Desmosomes in breast cancer

Desmosomes are multifaceted intracellular junctions that participate in cell adhesion and maintenance of normal tissue structure. Desmosomes connect epithelial cells, myoepithelial cells, and the two cell types to each other. Despite the strong adhesion that desmosomes provide, the role of desmosomes in breast cancer metastasis is enigmatic. The loss of desmoplakin in breast cancers correlates with amplified proliferation and increased tumor size, suggesting that desmosomal proteins might be...