♦ CIN 3 disease localized to ectocervix—colposcopy and loop diathermy, cryoprobe or laser

♦ CIN 3 disease extending into endocervical canal or micro-invasion—cone biopsy

♦ Complete excision still requires follow-up or if patient wants no more children—hysterectomy and surveillance for vaginal vault

♦ Invasive carcinoma (less than 4 cm, confined to cervix)—Wertheim's hysterectomy removes parametrium and pelvic nodes

♦ Radiotherapy if—incomplete excision of tumour

—poor tumour differentiation —vascular invasion —node involvement —all other stages/medically unfit

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