Staging and investigations

Staging requires a combination of surgical and histopathological investigations. The incidence of nodal metastases rises from less than 1% for tumours with less than 1 mm depth of invasion to over 10% for tumours over 3 mm in depth. The confirmation of groin lymph node status is therefore mandatory in all but early stage I disease. Non-invasive modalities such as ultrasound, CT, or MRI are of insufficient negative predictive value for regional (groin) node metastases. The routine dissection of groin nodes therefore remains important for most stages of this disease.

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