S phase

First steps: the first step in DNA duplication is the formation of initiation complexes and it appears that cyclin and CDK pairs, such as cyclin A and CDK2, are involved.

Regulation: maintenance of the replicative state may also be regulated by members of cyclin/CDK families. CDKs have been shown to phos-phorylate several DNA replication factors involved in elongation including sub-units of the DNA-binding protein, RPA and DNA polymerase. Both are phosphorylated from the onset of S phase and remain so through G2 up to the end of M phase.

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