The use of the operating microscope (microlaryngoscopy), rigid and fibre laryngoscopes, stroboscopy, CT, and MRI, and the improved histopathological diagnosis by immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, cytometry, and morphometry have made major contributions in laryngeal pathological diagnosis.

Radiotherapy is, in many countries, the prime treatment for laryn-geal carcinoma. Surgery has, however, been successfully refined, with various voice and airway conservation procedures. Rehabilitation of the laryngectomized patient has been easier with insertion of differing voice prostheses.

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