Exposure

Workers at risk from industrial chemical exposure include:

♦ Dye and textile workers (naphythylamines)—bladder tumours.

♦ Chemical, rubber workers (benzene)—marrow tumours.

♦ Plastics, pesticide workers.

♦ Asbestos workers—lung cancer, mesothelioma.

Cancers resulting from lifestyle factors account for at least two-thirds of chemical induction of cancer. Tobacco smoke contains a broad range of carcinogens. The risk of neoplasia increases dose dependent, in particular for lung, throat, oesophagus, and urinary bladder cancer. Cigarette smoking has an important synergistic effect on the development of neoplasms caused by other carcinogens, for example in asbestosis, or miners exposed to radioactive elements.

In food, pyrrolysis can result in the formation of polycyclic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines. 2-Amino-3,8-dimethyl-imidazol[4,5-f]auinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidaxzo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhiP) are potent genotoxic chemicals formed at parts per billion levels when meat is cooked. Aflatoxin Bj is a potent hepatocarcinogen in rodents; in areas of extensive contamination of foodstuffs with A. Flavus there is a high incidence of human liver cancer.

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