Aetiology

The following are the most common causes of urinary obstruction in patients with cancer:

♦ Carcinoma of the prostate or bladder when the urethra or ureteric orifices become occluded

♦ Carcinoma of the cervix or other carcinoma involving the pelvis obstructing the lower ureter

♦ Para-aortic nodes or retroperitoneal tumour compressing the ureters

♦ Transitional cell carcinoma of one or both ureters

♦ Fibrosis following surgery, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy

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