Tnfrsf14 Pathway

Tnfrsf14 Pathway

Survival, possibly through the activation of BCL-2 family members, such as the expression of BCL-XL. - The recruitment of TRAF2 to the TNF Receptor activates JNK and consecutively c-JUN. CD95 (FAS, APO-1). CD95 is a 317 amino acid type-I transmembrane glycoprotein with three extracellular cysteine-rich domains, that belongs to the TNFR superfamily. The CD95L (FAS Ligand, FASL) binding site is located on the cysteine-rich domains -2 and -3. CD95 molecules on the cell surface assemble into...

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PS.1 BINDING NLS NES ACIDIC Zn-FINGER RINGFINGER Figure 3.3.13.B. MDM-2 structure. The proto-oncoprotein MDM-2 acts as a cellular inhibitor of P53 by binding to the transactivation domain of P53 and suppressing its ability to activate transcription. The upper panel depicts the gene and the lower panel shows the protein structure. Exon 1 is untranslated. P53 re is the P53 response element. Two messages can be generated through the use of alternative promoters. The protein has multiple functional...

Shh

Notch Ligand Drosophila Structure

Once activated, SMO transduces signals that activate the transcription factors GLI-1, GLI-2, and GLI-3. They activate genes that support cell proliferation. Somewhat unique is the two-step negative regulation at the level of the receptors. SHH inhibits PTC-1, which inhibits SMO. Hence, the presence of the ligand SHH relieves the PTC-dependent suppression of SMO signaling and allows the activation of GLI. 2q14 and GLI3 7p13 can also be regulated by FGF in the...

Noxious Theories

The stigma that cancer equals death, originating in the experiences of Hippocrates, Galen, and Celsus, was attached to the disease for centuries. It led to the long-respected dictum that doctors should not inform their patients of the diagnosis to avoid agony. In view of progress in surgery, which allowed the removal of some tumors, the American Cancer Society was formed in 1913 to educate the public about the warning symptoms of cancer and to reduce their fatalistic fears. The increased public...

Theories Of Carcinogenesis

The oldest description of human cancer, referring to eight cases of tumors of the breast, was found in the Egyptian Edwin Smith Papyrus, written around 3000-1500 bc. The oldest specimens of human cancers were detected in the remains of a female skull dating back to the Bronze Age (1900-1600 bc), and in fossilized bones of ancient Egypt. The mummified skeletal remains of Peruvian Incas, dating about 2,400 years ago, contained lesions suggestive of malignant melanoma. The term cancer goes back to...

The Genetic Programs Of Invasiveness Encode Stress Responses

It has been subject to intense debate whether the dissemination of cancer cells is an active process, driven by the malignancy, or the carriage of tumor cells to distant sites through the lymph or blood flow. (Table 2.3.A). The output of tumor cells from a primary site Table 2.3.A. Evidence weighing genetic versus epigenetic mechanisms of metastasis. The mechanisms of metastasis formation have been subject to intense debate. Two opposing views contend that the ability of malignant, but not...

Regulatory Theories

Beyond the development of cancer research from explanations on a cellular level to a molecular genetic level, there has been a development of dynamic models of carcinogenesis. Winge introduced the concept of selective cellular proliferation, realizing that selection must operate on a genotypi-cally mixed population of proliferating cells as inevitably as it acts on a genotypically mixed population of reproducing organisms Winge 1930 . Macfarlane Burnet conceptualized the clonal selection theory...

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Action of tyrosine kinase receptors. Dimerization and autophosphorylation of tyrosine kinase receptors. Growth factor binding induces receptor dimerization, which results in receptor autophosphorylation. The SH2 domains of intracellular signaling molecules then bind to specific phosphotyrosine-containing motifs of the activated receptors. Reproduced from Cooper 1997. With permission. Figure 3.I.3.A. Action of tyrosine kinase receptors. Dimerization and autophosphorylation of...

Insulin Like Growth Factors Insulin IGFs 1 and

And Relaxin stimulate DNA synthesis and cell growth. All four growth factors are disulfide-linked heterodimers that are generated from precursor forms by proteolytic cleavage. - Insulin is produced as proinsulin Steiner and Oyer 1967 by the P cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. - IGF-1 is mainly secreted by the liver and smooth muscle cells as a result of stimulation by growth hormone. Most cells are responsive to IGF-1, especially cells in muscle, cartilage, bone, liver, kidney,...