The real strides made by in vivo MRS and MRSI in clinical oncology are, in fact, highly tumor- or site specific. The most dramatic achievements have been made with respect to brain tumors, for which this molecular imaging modality has become an indispensable diagnostic component. MRS and MRSI are also now becoming very important in various aspects of prostate cancer diagnostics. For other malignancies, in vivo MRS and MRSI while showing promise, still have had relatively limited applications. On the other hand, MRI is widely used in staging many, if not most, solid cancers. Moreover, for some special indications, notably young women at high risk for breast cancer, MRI is being explored as a possible first-line diagnostic modality. In the subsequent chapters of Part B of this book, we will provide an in-depth review of the state-of the art of molecular imaging through MR in clinical oncology, on a tumor- or site-specific basis. In this chapter, we first present some generalities concerning MR in cancer diagnostics.
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