[1] Millesi H, Meissl G, Berger A. The interfascicular nerve grafting of the median and ulnar nerves. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1972;54:727-50.

[2] Millesi H, Meissl G, Berger A. A further experience with interfascicular grafting of the median, ulnar, and radial nerves. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1976;58: 209-18.

[3] Kennedy R. Suture of the brachial plexus in birth paralysis of the upper extremity. Br Med J 1903;1: 298-306.

[4] Boome RS, Kaye JC. Obstetric traction injuries of the brachial plexus: natural history, indications for surgical repair, and results. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1988;7O:571-5.

[5] Allieu Y. Exploration et traitement direct des lesions nerveuses dans les paralysies tramatiques par elongation du plexus brachial chez lladulte. Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot 1977;63:107-22.

[6] Allieu Y, Privat JM, Bonnel F. Paralysis in root avulsion of the brachia1 plexus. Neurotization by the spinal accessory nerve. Clin Plast Surg 1984;11:133-6.

[7] Alnot JY, Jolly A, Frot B. Traitement direct des lesions nerveuses dans les paralysies tramatiques du plexus brachial chez adult. Int Orthop 1981;5: 151-68.

[S] Brunelli G. Neurotization of avulsed roots of the brachial plexus by means of anterior nerves of the cervical plexus. International Journal of Microsurgery 1980;5:5-10.

[9] Gilbert A, Tassin JL. Reparation chirurgicale du plexus brachial dans a paralysis obstetricale. Chirurgie 1984;110:70-5.

[10] Hentz VR, Narakas AO. The results of microneuro-surgical reconstruction in complete brachial plexus palsy: assessing outcome and predicting results. Orthop Clin North Am 1988;19:107-14.

[11] Millesi H. Surgical management of brachial plexus injuries. Hand Surg 1977;2:367-79.

[12] Minami M, Ishii S. Satisfactory elbow flexion in complete (preganglionic) brachial plexus injuries produced by suture of third and fourth intercostal nerves to musculocutaneous nerve. J Hand Surg [Am] 1987;12:1114-8.

[13] Narakas AO. Indications et resultats du traitement chirugical direct dans les lesions par elongation du plexus brachial. Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot 1977;63:88-106.

[14] Narakas AO. Brachial plexus surgery. Orthop Clin North Am 1981;12:303-23.

[15] Narakas AO, Hentz VR. Neurotization in brachial plexus injuries: indication and results. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1988;237:43-56.

[16] Samii M, Kahl R. Clinische resultate der autologen nerven transplantation. Melssunger Med Mittel 1972;46:197-206.

[17] Sedel L. Results of surgical repair in brachial plexus injuries. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1982;64:54-66.

[18] TsuyamaN, HaraT. Intercostal nerve transfer in the treatment of brachial plexus injury of the root avul-stion type. Excerpta Med 1972;291:351-9.

[19] Erb W. Veber eine eigen thumliche localisation von lahmungen in plexus brachialis. Verh Dtsch 1874;2: 130-3.

[20] Duchenne G. De L'electrisation localisee et de son application a la pathologie et a la therapeutique. Paris: Balliere; 1872.

[21] Bonney G. Prognosis in traction lesions of the brachial plexus. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1959;41:4-35.

[22] Coene LN. Mechanisms of brachial plexus lesions. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 1993;95(Suppl):524-9.

[23] Sunderland S, editor. Nerves and nerve injuries. 2nd edition. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 1978.

[24] Kawabata H, Kwai H, Masatoni T, et al. Accessory nerve neurotization in infants with brachial plexus birth palsy. Microsurgery 1994;15:768-72.

[25] Gu YD, Ma MK. Use of the phrenic nerve for brachial plexus reconstruction. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1996;323:119-26.

[26] Gu YD, Chen DS, Zhang GM, et al. Long-term functional results of contralateral C7 transfer. J Reconstr Microsurg 1998;14:57-9.

[27] Akasaka Y, Hara T, Takahashi M. Free muscle transplantation combined with intercostal nerve crossing for reconstruction of elbow flexion and wrist extension in brachial plexus injuries. Microsurgery 1991;12:346-61.

[28] Doi K, Muramatsu K, Hattori Y, et al. Restoration of prehension with the double free muscle technique following complete avulsion of the brachial plexus: indications and long-term results. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2000;82:652-66.

[29] Manktelow RT, McKee NH. Free muscle transplantation to provide active finger flexion. J Hand Surg [Am] 1978;3:416-26.

[30] Mohammed NS. A simple method of shoulder arthrodesis. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1998;80:620-3.

[31] Ruhmann O, Grosse F. Reconstructive operations for the paralyzed shoulder in brachial plexus palsy: concept of treatment. Injury 1999;30:609-18.

[32] Witoonchart K, Leechavengvongs S, Uerpairojkit C, et al. Nerve transfer to deltoid muscle using the nerve to the long head of the triceps, part I: an anatomic feasibility study. J Hand Surg [Am] 2003; 28(4):628-32.

[33] Chuang DC, Epstein MD, Yeh MC, et al. Functional restoration of elbow flexion in brachial plexus injuries: results in 167 patients (excluding obstetric brachial plexus injury). J Hand Surg [Am] 1993;18: 285-91.

[34] Steindler A. Tendon transplantation in the upper extremity. Am J Surg 1939;44:534-60.

[35] Zancolli E, Mitre H. Latissimus dorsi transfer to restore elbow flexion: an appraisal of eight cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1973;55:1265-75.

[36] Clark JMP. Reconstruction of biceps brachii by pectoral muscle transplantation. Br J Surg 1946;34: 180-1.

[37] Oberlin C, Beal D, Leechavengvongs S, et al. Nerve transfer to biceps muscle using a part of ulnar nerve for C5-C6 avulsion of the brachial plexus: anatomical study and report of four cases. J Hand Surg [Am] 1994;19:232-7.

[38] Tung TH, Novack CB, MacKinnon SE. Nerve transfers to the biceps and brachialis branches to improve elbow flexion strength after brachial plexus injuries. J Neurosurg 2003;98:313-8.

[39] Waters P, Bae B. Effect of tendon transfers and extra-articular soft-tissue balancing on glenohumeral development in brachial plexus birth palsy. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2005;87(2):320-5.

[40] Clarke HM, Curtis CG. Examination and prognosis. In: Gilbert A, editor. Brachial plexus injuries. London: Martin Dunitz; 2000. p. 159-72.

[41] Borrero JL. Surgical technique. In: Gilbert,editor. Brachial plexus injuries. London: Martin Dunitz; 2000. p. 189-204.

[42] Laurent JP, Lee RT. Birth-related upper brachial plexus injuries in infants: operative and nonoperative approaches. J Child Neurol 1994;9:111-8.

Hand Clin 23 (2007) 91-104

Was this article helpful?

0 0
31 Days To Bigger Arms

31 Days To Bigger Arms

You can have significantly bigger arms in only 31 days. How much bigger? That depends on a lot of factors. You werent able to select your parents so youre stuck with your genetic potential to build muscles. You may have a good potential or you may be like may of the rest of us who have averages Potential. Download this great free ebook and start learns how to build your muscles up.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment