Sickle cell anemia

Senegal^

40 30

40 30

Gy Ay yP

Hinc

0 Kb

tutu JtL )t

Xmn Hind Pvu Hinc Hinf Ava Hpa Bam HI I III II II I II I Hgi

AI Gy

SS Benin SS Bantu

- ---+-+ - ++ - + - -+-+-- -++ + +

1 1

SS Senegal SS Arab-India

- ++-+ + + +++ + + + ++ - ++ + +-

t t

Fig. 14.4 p gene cluster haplotypes linked to PS in Africa and the Middle East/Pakistan/India

At the top of the figure are shown the geographic distributions corresponding to the haplotypes described below. A haplotype is a particular array of polymorphic sites (that is, sites that vary among individuals), defined here by the capacity of endonuclease enzymes to recognize the short sequence and cut the DNA.

Indus Valley, and then was distributed, probably during the Sassanian Empire, to the present sites (eastern Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait and Oman).

The sickle gene has also spread through gene flow; for example, the Benin haplotype-linked PS has found its way to North Africa, Sicily, Greece, Turkey, most of the Arab world and the Americas, through the vagaries of wars of conquest (Sudanese troops in Sicily during the Arab conquest, for example) and the horrors of the Atlantic slave trade.

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