Abramson, L.Y., Metalsky, G.I. & Alloy, L.B. (1989). Hopelessness depression: A theory based subtype of depression. Psychological Bulletin, 96, 358-372. Akiskal, H.S. & McKinney, W.T. (1973). Depressive disorders: Toward a unified hypothesis. Science, 182, 20-29.

Akiskal, H.S. & McKinney, W.T. (1975). Overview of recent research in depression: Integration of ten conceptual models into a comprehensive frame. Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 285-305. Akiskal, H.S & Pinto, O. (1999). The evolving bipolar spectrum: Prototypes I, II, III, and IV. In H.S Akiskal (Ed.), Bipolarity: Beyond Classic Mania. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 22, 517-534.

Alden, L.E. & Wallace, S.T. (1995). Social phobia and social appraisal in successful and unsuccessful social interaction. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 497-505. Allan, S. (2000). Social Rank and Attachment in Relationship to Depression. PhD thesis, University of Derby.

Allan, S. & Gilbert, P. (1997). Submissive behaviour and psychopathology. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36, 467-488.

Allen, N.B. & Gilbert, P. (2000). Social intelligence, self deception, and vulnerability to psycho-pathology: A challenge for the cognitive therapies? In P. Gilbert & K.G. Bailey (Eds), Genes on the Couch: Explorations in Evolutionary Psychotherapy (pp. 151-175). Hove: Psychology Press.

Alpert, J.E., Uebelacker, L.A., McLean, N.E., et al. (1997). Social phobia, avoidant personality disorder and atypical depression: Co-occurrence and clinical implications. Psychological Medicine, 27, 627-633.

Andrews, B. (1998). Shame and childhood abuse. In P. Gilbert & B. Andrews (Eds), Shame: Interpersonal Behavior, Psychopathology and Culture (pp. 176-190). New York: Oxford University Press.

Andrews, B. & Brewin, C.R. (1990). Attributions of blame for marital violence: A study of antecedents and consequences. Journal of Family and Marriage, 52, 757-767.

Anisman, H. & Merali, Z. (1999). Anhedonic and anxiogenic effects of cytokine exposure. Advances in Experimental Medical Biology, 461, 199-233.

Arrindell, W.A., Sanderman, R., Hageman, W.J.J.M., et al. (1990). Correlates of assertiveness in normal and clinical samples: A multidimensional approach. Advances in Behaviour Theory and Research, 12, 153-282.

Baldwin, M.W. &Fergusson, P. (2001). Relational schemas: The activation of interpersonal knowledge structures in social anxiety. In W.R. Crozier & L.E. Alden (Eds), International Handbook of Social Anxiety: Concepts, Research and Interventions to the Selfand Shyness (pp. 235-257). Chichester: Wiley.

Barkow, J.H. (1989). Darwin, Sex and Status: Biological Approaches to Mind and Culture. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Baumeister, R.F. (1990). Suicide as escape from self. Psychological Review, 97, 90-133.

Baumeister, R.F., Tice, D.M. & Hutton, D.G. (1989). Self-presentational motivation of differences in self-esteem. Journal of Personality, 57, 547-579.

Bebbington, P. (1998). Editorial: Sex and depression. Psychological Medicine, 28, 1-8.

Bebbington, P., Katz, R., McGuffin, P., Sturt, E. & Wing, J.K. (1989). The risk of minor depression before age 65: Results from a community survey. Psychological Medicine, 19, 393-400.

Beck, A.T. (1967). Depression: Clinical, Experimental and Theoretical Aspects. New York: Harper & Row.

Beck, A.T. (1987). Cognitive models of depression. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 1, 5-38.

Beck, A.T., Rush, A.J., Shaw, B.F. & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive Therapy of Depression. New York: Wiley.

Beckham, E.E., Leber, W.R. & Youll, L.K. (1995). The diagnostic classification of depression. In E.E. Beckham & W.R. Leber (Eds), Handbook of Depression, (2nd edn) (pp. 36-60). New York: Guilford.

Belsher, G. & Costello, C.G. (1988). Relapse after recovery from unipolar depression: A critical review. Psychological Bulletin, 104, 84-86.

Birchwood, M., Mason, R., MacMillan, F. & Healy, J. (1993). Depression, demoralization and control over psychotic illness: A comparison of depressed and non-depressed patients with chronic psychosis. Psychological Medicine, 23, 387-395.

Blackburn, I.M. & Moorhead, S. (2000). Update in cognitive therapy for depression. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An international Quarterly, 14, 305-336.

Blanchard, J.J., Gangestad, S.W., Brown, S.A. & Horan, W.P. (2000). Hedonic capacity and schizo-typy revisited: A taxometric analysis of social anhedonia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 87-95.

Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment: Attachment and Loss, vol. 1. London: Hogarth Press.

Bowlby, J. (1973). Separation, Anxiety and Anger. Attachment and Loss, vol. 2. London: Hogarth Press.

Bowlby, J. (1980). Loss: Sadness and Depression. Attachment and Loss, vol. 3. London: Hogarth Press.

Brenninkmeyer, V., Yperen, N.W. & Buunk, B.P. (2001). Burnout and depression are not identical twins: Is decline of superiority a distinguishing feature? Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 873-880.

Brody, C.L., Haag, D.A.F., Kirk, L. & Solomon, A. (1999). Experiences of anger in people who have recovered from depression and never-depressed people. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 187, 400-405.

Brown, G.W., Adler, W.Z. & Bifulco, A. (1988). Life events, difficulties and recovery from chronic depression. British Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 487-498.

Brown, G.W. & Harris, T.O. (1978). The Social Origins of Depression. London: Tavistock.

Brown, G.W., Bifulco, A. & Harris, T.O. (1987). Life events, vulnerability and onset of depression: Some refinements. British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 30-42.

Brown, G.W., Harris, T.O. & Hepworth, C. (1995). Loss, humiliation and entrapment among women developing depression: A patient and non-patient comparison. Psychological Medicine, 25, 7-21.

Brown, T., Campbell, L.A., Lehman, C.L., Grisham, J.R. & Mancill, R.B. (2001). Current and lifetime comorbidity of the DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders in a large clinical sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 585-599.

Buss, D.M. (1999). Evolutionary Psychology: The New Science of Mind. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Buunk, B.P. & Brenninkmeyer, V. (2000). Social comparison among depressed individuals: Evidence for the evolutionary perspective on involuntary subordinate strategies? In L. Sloman & P. Gilbert (Eds), Subordination and Defeat: An Evolutionary Approach to Mood Disorders and their Treatment (pp. 147-164). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Cacioppo, J.T., Berston, G.G., Sheridan, J.F. & McClintock, M.K. (2000). Multilevel integrative analysis of human behavior: Social neuroscience and the complementing nature of social and biological approaches. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 829-843.

Cawson, P., Wattam, C., Brooker, S. & Kelly, G (2000). Child maltreatment in the United Kingdom: A study of the prevalence of child abuse and neglect: London NSPCC (for further information: e-mail [email protected]).

Champion, L.A. & Power, M.J. (1995). Social and cognitive approaches to depression. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 34, 485-503.

Clark, L.A. (2000). Mood, personality and personality disorder. In R.J. Davidson (Ed.), Anxiety, Depression and Emotion (pp. 171-200). New York: Oxford University Press.

Cohen, D. (2001). Cultural variation: Considerations and implications. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 451-471.

Collins, N.L. & Feeney, B.C. (2000). A safe haven: An attachment theory perspective on support seeking and care giving in intimate relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 1053-1073.

Costello, C.G. (1993). The advantages of the symptom approach to depression. In C.G. Costello (Ed.), Symptoms ofDepression (pp. 1-21). New York: Wiley.

Coyne, J.C. (1994). Self-reported distress: Analog or ersatz depression? Psychological Bulletin, 116, 29-45.

Cramer, K.M. (1999). Psychological antecedents to help-seeking behavior: A reanalysis using path modelling structures. Journal of Counselling Psychology, 46, 381-387.

Creed, A.T. & Funder, D.C. (1998). Social anxiety: From the inside and outside. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 19-33.

Dalai Lama (2001). An Open Heart: Practising Compassion in Everyday Life (edited by N. Vreeland). London: Hodder & Stoughton.

Davidson, R.J. (2000). Affective style, mood, and anxiety disorders: An affective neuroscience approach. In R.J. Davidson (Ed.), Anxiety, Depression and Emotion (pp. 88-108). New York: Oxford University Press.

Davidson, J., Zisook, S., Giller, E. & Helms, M. (1989). Symptoms of interpersonal sensitivity in depression. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 30, 357-368.

Dixon, A.K. (1998). Ethological strategies for defence in animals and humans: Their role in some psychiatric disorders. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 71, 417-445.

Downey, G., Freitas, A.L., Michaels, M. & Khouri, H. (1998a). The self-fulfilling prophecy in close relationships: Rejection sensitivity and rejection by romantic partners. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 545-560.

Downey, G., Lebolt, A., Rincon, C. & Freitas, L.A. (1998b). Rejection sensitivity and children's interpersonal difficulties. Child Development, 69, 1074-1091.

Driscoll, R. (1988). Self-condemnation: A conceptual framework for assessment and treatment. Psychotherapy, 26, 104-111.

Dunn, J. (1992). Sisters and brothers: Current issues in developmental research. In F. Boers & J. Dunn (Eds), Children's Sibling Relationships: Developmental and Clinical Issues (pp. 1-17). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Ehlers, A., Maercker, A. & Boos, S. (2000). Posttraumatic stress disorder following imprisonment: Role of mental defeat, alienation, and perceived permanent change. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 45-55.

Eisenberg, L. (2000). Is psychiatry more mindful or brainier than it was a decade ago? British Journal of Psychiatry, 176, 1-5.

Ellgring, H. (1989). Nonverbal Communication in Depression. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Field, T.M. (1998). Touch therapy effects on development. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 22, 779-797.

Fombonne, E. (1994). Increased rates of depression: Update of epidemiological findings and analytical problems. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 90, 145-156.

Fombonne, E. (1999). Time trends in affective disorders. In P. Cohen, C. Slomkowski & L. Robins (Eds), Historical and Geographical Influences on Psychopathology (pp. 115-140). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Forrest, M.S. & Hokanson, J.E. (1975). Depression and autonomic arousal reduction accompanying self-punitive behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 84, 346-357.

Gabbard, G.O. (2000). A neurobiologically informed perspective on psychotherapy. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, 117-122.

Ganzini, L., McFarland, B.H. & Cutler, D. (1990). Prevalence of mental disorder after a catastrophic financial loss. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 178, 680-685.

Gara, M.A., Woolfolk, R.L., Cohen, B.D., Goldston, R.B., Allen, L.A. & Novalany, J. (1993). Perception of self and other in major depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 193, 93-100.

Gardner, R. (1982). Mechanisms of manic-depressive disorder: An evolutionary model. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 1436-1441.

Gilbert, P. (1984). Depression: From Psychology to Brain State. London: Erlbaum.

Gilbert, P. (1989). Human Nature and Suffering. Hove: Erlbaum.

Gilbert, P. (1992). Depression: The Evolution of Powerlessness. Hove: Erlbaum.

Gilbert, P. (1993). Defense and safety: Their function in social behaviour and psychopathology. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 32, 131-154.

Gilbert, P. (1995). Biopsychosocial approaches and evolutionary theory as aids to integration in clinical psychology and psychotherapy. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 2, 135-156.

Gilbert, P. (1997). The evolution of social attractiveness and its role in shame, humiliation, guilt and therapy. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 70, 113-147.

Gilbert, P. (1998a). What is shame? Some core issues and controversies. In P. Gilbert & B. Andrews (Eds), Shame: Interpersonal Behavior, Psychopathology and Culture (pp. 3-38). New York: Oxford University Press.

Gilbert, P. (1998b). The evolved basis and adaptive functions of cognitive distortions. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 71, 447-463.

Gilbert, P. (2000a). Varieties of submissive behavior as forms of social defense: Their evolution and role in depression. In L. Sloman & P. Gilbert (Eds), Subordination and Defeat: An Evolutionary Approach to Mood Disorders and their Treatment (pp. 3-45). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Gilbert, P. (2000b). Counselling for Depression. 2ndedn. London: Sage.

Gilbert, P. (2000c). Social mentalities: Internal 'social' conflicts and the role of inner warmth and compassion in cognitive therapy. In P. Gilbert & K.G. Bailey (Eds), Genes on the Couch: Explorations in Evolutionary Psychotherapy (pp. 118-150). Hove: Brenner-Routledge.

Gilbert, P. (2000d). The relationship of shame, social anxiety and depression: The role of the evaluation of social rank. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 7, 174-189.

Gilbert, P. (2000e). Overcoming Depression: A Self-Guide Using Cognitive Behavioural Techniques (rev. edn). London: Robinson-Constable (New York: Oxford University Press).

Gilbert, P. (2001a). Depression and stress: A biopsychosocial exploration of evolved functions and mechanisms. Stress: International Journal of the Biology of Stress, 4, 121-135.

Gilbert, P. (2001b). Evolution and social anxiety: The role of social competition and social hierarchies. In F. Schnieder (Ed.), Social Anxiety: Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 24, 723-751.

Gilbert, P. (2001c). Evolutionary approaches to psychopathology: The role of natural defences. Australian andNew Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35, 17-27.

Gilbert, P. & Allan, S. (1998). The role of defeat and entrapment (arrested flight) in depression: An exploration of an evolutionary view. Psychological Medicine, 28, 584-597.

Gilbert, P. & Gerlsma, C. (1999). Recall of favouritism in relation to psychopathology. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 357-373.

Gilbert, P. & Gilbert, J. (2003). Entrapment and arrested anger in depression: An exploration using focus groups. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory Research and Practice, 76, 173-188.

Gilbert, P. & McGuire, M. (1998). Shame, social roles and status: The psychobiological continuum from monkey to human. In P. Gilbert & B. Andrews (Eds), Shame: Interpersonal Behavior, Psychopathology and Culture (pp. 99-125). New York: Oxford University Press.

Gilbert, P. & Miles, J.N.V. (2000). Evolution, genes, development and psychopathology. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 7, 246-255.

Gilbert, P., Allan, S., Ball, L. & Bradshaw, Z. (1996). Overconfidence and personal evaluations of social rank. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 69, 59-68.

Gilbert, P., Allan, S., Brough, S., Melley, S. & Miles, J.N.V. (2002). Anhedonia and positive affect: Relationship to social rank, defeat and entrapment. Journal of Affective Disorders, 71, 141-151.

Gilbert, P., Birchwood, M., Gilbert, J., et al. (2001). An exploration of evolved mental mechanisms for dominant and subordinate behaviour in relation to auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia and critical thoughts in depression. Psychological Medicine, 31, 1117-1127.

Gilbert, P., Price, J.S. & Allan, S. (1995). Social comparison, social attractiveness and evolution: How might they be related? New Ideas in Psychology, 13, 149-165.

Giles, D., Jarrett, R., Biggs, M., Guzick, D. & Rush, J. (1989). Clinical predictors of reoccurrence in depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 764-767.

Goodwin, D. & Jamison, K.R. (1990). Manic Depressive Illness. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gotlib, I.H., Gilboa, E. & Sommerfeld, B.K. (2000). Cognitive functioning in depression. In, R.J. Davidson (Ed.), Anxiety, Depression and Emotion (pp. 133-165). New York: Oxford University Press.

Gray, J.A. (1987). The Psychology of Fear and Stress 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Greenberg, L.S., Elliott, R.K. & Foerster, F.S. (1990). Experiential processes in the psychotherapeutic treatment of depression. In C.D. McCann & N.S. Endler (Eds), Depression: New Directions in Theory, Research and Practice (pp. 157-185). Toronto: Wall & Emerson.

Greenberg, L.S. & Pascual, J. (1997). Emotion in the creation of personal meaning. In M. Power & C. Brewin (Eds), The Transformation ofMeaning: Reconciling Theory and Therapy in Cognitive, Behaviour and Related Therapies (pp. 157-173). Chichester: Wiley.

Griffiths, J., Ravindran, A.V., Merali, Z. & Anisman, H. (2000). Dysthymia: A review of pharmacological and behavioral factors. Molecular Psychiatry, 5, 242-261.

Hammen, C., Henry, R. & Daley, S.E. (2000). Depression and sensitization to stressors among young women as a function of childhood adversity. Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 68, 782-787.

Hankin, B.L. & Abramson, L.Y. (2001). Development of gender differences in depression: An elaborated cognitive vulnerability-transactional stress theory. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 773-796.

Hart, J., Gunnar, M. & Cicchetti, D. (1996). Altered neuroendocrine activity in maltreated children related to symptoms of depression. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 201-214.

Healy, D. (2001). The dilemmas posed by new fashionable treatments. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 7, 322-327.

Heim, C., Newport, J., Heit, S., et al. (2000). Pituitary-adrenal and autonomic responses to stress in women after sexual and physical abuse in childhood. Journal ofAmerican Medical Association, 284, 592-597.

Higley, J.D., Mehlman, P.T., Higley, S., et al. (1996). Excessive mortality in young free-ranging male nonhuman primates with low cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentrations. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 537-543.

Hofer, M.A. (1994). Early relationships as regulators of infant physiology and behavior. Acta Paedi-atrica Supplement, 397, 9-18.

Hooley, J.M. & Teasdale, J.D. (1989). Predictors of relapse in unipolar depressives: Expressed emotion, marital distress and perceived criticism. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 98, 229-235.

Horowitz, M.J., Wilner, N., Marmar, C. & Krupnick, J. (1980). Pathological grief and the activation of latent self-images. American Journal of Psychiatry, 137, 1157-1162.

Irwin, W. (2000). Depression in rodents and humans: Commentary on Jay Weiss. In R.J. Davidson (Ed.), Anxiety, Depression and Emotion (pp. 36-49). New York: Oxford University Press.

Jung, C.G. (1952/1992). Answer to Job. London: Routledge.

Kaelber, C.T., Moul, D.E. & Farmer, M.E. (1995). Epidemiology of depression. In E.E. Beckham & W.R. Leber (Eds), Handbook of Depression (2nd edn) (pp. 3-35). New York: Guilford.

Keltner, D. & Harker, L.A. (1998). The forms and functions of the nonverbal signal of shame. In P. Gilbert & B. Andrews (Eds), Shame: Interpersonal Behavior, Psychopathology and Culture (pp. 78-98). New York: Oxford University Press.

Kessler, R.C. & Magee, W. (1993). Childhood adversities and adult depression: Basic patterns of association in a U.S. national survey. Psychological Medicine, 23, 679-690.

Kessler, R.C., McGonagle, K.A., Zhao, S., et al. (1994). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-111R psychiatric disorders in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 8-19.

Kessler, R.C., Soukup, J., Davis, R.B., et al. (2001). The use of complementary and alternative therapies to treat anxiety and depression in the United States. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 289-294.

Kiesler, D.J. (1999). Beyond the Disease Model of Mental Disorders. New York: Praeger.

Kimberly, H. (1990). Blame and adjustment among women sexually abused as children. Women and Therapy, 9, 89-110.

Klinger, E. (1975). Consequences and commitment to aid disengagement from incentives. Psychological Review, 82, 1-24.

Klinger, E. (1993). Loss of interest. In C.G. Costello (Ed.), Symptoms of Depression (pp. 43-62). New York: Wiley.

Leahy, R.L. (2000). Sunk costs and resistance to change. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 14, 355-371.

Leary, M.R. (1995). Self-Presentation: Impression Management and Interpersonal Behavior. Madison, WI: Brown & Benchmark's.

Leary, M.R., Tambor, E.S., Terdal, S.K. & Downs, D.L. (1995). Self-esteem as an interpersonal monitor: The sociometer hypothesis. Journal ofPersonality and Social Psychology, 68, 519-530.

Levitan, R., Hasey, G. & Sloman, L. (2000). Major depression and the involuntary defeat strategy; biological correlates. In L. Sloman & P. Gilbert (Eds), Subordination and Defeat: An Evolutionary Approach to Mood Disorders and Their Therapy (pp. 95-114). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Lewis, M. (1992). Shame: The Exposed Self. New York: Free Press.

Ligezinska, M., Firestone, P., Manion, I.G., McIntyre, J., Ensom, R. & Wells, G. (1996). Children's emotional and behavioral reactions following the disclosure of extrafamilial sexual abuse: Initial effects. Child Abuse and Neglect, 20, 111-125.

Liotti, G. (2000). Disorganised attachment, models of borderline states and evolutionary psychotherapy. In P. Gilbert & B. Bailey (Eds), Genes on the Couch: Explorations in Evolutionary Psychotherapy (pp. 232-256). Hove: Brunner-Routledge.

MacDonald, K.B. (1988). Social and Personality Development: An Evolutionary Synthesis. New York: Plenum Press.

MacLean, P.D. (1990). The Triune Brain in Evolution. New York: Plenum Press.

Maes, M. (1995). Evidence for an immune response in major depression: A review and hypothesis. Progress in NeuroPsychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 19, 11-38.

McCullough, J.P. Jr. (2000). Treatment for Chronic Depression: Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy. New York: Guilford.

McGuade, R. & Young, A.H. (2000). Future therapeutic targets in mood disorders: The glucorticoid receptor. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, 390-395.

McGuffin, P., Katz, R. & Rutherford, J. (1991). Nature, nurture and depression: A twin study. Psychological Medicine, 21, 329-335.

McGuire, M.T. & Troisi, A. (1998a). Darwinian Psychiatry. New York: Oxford University Press.

McGuire, M.T. & Troisi, A. (1998b). Prevalence differences in depression among males and females: Are there evolutionary explanations? British Journal of Medical Psychology, 71, 479-492.

Meaney, M.J., Diorio, J., Francis, D., et al. (1996). Early environmental regulation of forebrain glucocorticoid receptor gene expression: Implications for adrenocortical responses to stress. Developmental Neuroscience, 18, 49-72.

Meehl, P.E. (1995). Bootstrap taxometrics: Solving the classification problem in psychopathology. American Psychologist, 50, 266-275.

Meerlo, P., de Boer, S.F., Koolhaas, J.M., Daan, S. & van den Hoofdakker, R.H. (1996). Changes in daily rhythms of body temperature and activity after a single social defeat in rats. Physiology and Behaviour, 59, 735-739.

Mikulincer, M., Birnbaum, G., Woddis, D. & Nachmias, O. (2000). Stress and accessibility of proximity-related thoughts: Exploring intraindividual components of attachment theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 509-523.

Miller, L.C. & Fishkin, S.A. (1997). On the dynamics of human bonding and reproductive success: Seeking windows on the adapted-for-human-environment interface. In J. Simpson & D.T. Kendrick (Eds), Evolutionary Social Psychology (pp. 197-235). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Moldofsky, H. & Dickstein, J.B. (1999). Sleep and cytokine-immune functions in medical, psychiatric and primary sleep disorders. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 34, 325-337.

Morriss, R.K. & Morriss, E.E. (2000). Contextual evaluation of social adversity in the management of depressive disorder. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 6, 423-431.

Mullen, K. (2001). Pleasing to behold: Healing and the visualized body. Mental Health Religion and Culture, 4, 119-132.

Murray, L. & Cooper, P.J. (1997). Postpartum Depression and Child Development. New York: Guil-ford.

Murray, C.J.L. & Lopez, A.D. (1996). The Global Burden of Disease: A Comprehensive Assessment of Mortality and Disability from Diseases. Injuries and Risk Factors in 1990 and Projected to 2020. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.

Nemeroff, C.B. (1996). The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) hypothesis of depression: New findings and new directions. Molecular Psychiatry, 1, 336-342.

Nemeroff, C.B. (1998). The neurobiology of depression. Scientific American, June, 28-35.

Nesse, R. (1998). Emotional disorders in evolutionary perspective. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 71, 397-416.

Nesse, R. (2000). Is depression an adaptation? Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 14-20.

Panksepp, J. (1998). Affective Neuroscience. New York: Oxford University Press.

Perry, B.D., Pollard, R.A., Blakley, T.L., Baker, W.L. & Vigilante, D. (1995). Childhood trauma, the neurobiology of adaptation and 'use-dependent' development of the brain: How 'states' become 'traits'. Infant Mental Health Journal, 16, 271-291.

Peterson, C., Maier, S.F. & Seligman, M.E.P. (1993). Learned Helplessness: A Theory for the Age of Personal Control. New York: Oxford University Press.

Posener, J.A., deBattista, C., Willimans, G.H., Chmura, H., Kalehzan, M. & Scatzberg, A.F. (2000). 24-hour monitoring of cortisol and corticotropin secretion in psychotic and nonpsychotic major depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 755-760.

Posternak, M.A. & Zimmerman, M. (2002). Partial validation of the atypical features subtype of major depressive disorders. Archives ofGeneral Psychiatry, 59, 70-76.

Price, J.S. (1972). Genetic and phylogenetic aspects of mood variations. International Journal of Mental Health, 1, 124-144.

Price, J.S. (2000). Subordination, self-esteem and depression. In L. Sloman & P. Gilbert (Eds), Subordination and Defeat: An Evolutionary Approach to Mood Disorders and Their Therapy (pp. 165-177). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Price, J.S. & Sloman, L. (1987). Depression as yielding behaviour: An animal model based on Schjelderup-Ebb's pecking order. Ethology and Sociobiology, 8 (Suppl.), 85-98.

Price, J., Sloman, L., Gardner, R., Gilbert, P. & Rohde, P. (1994). The social competition hypothesis of depression. British Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 309-315.

Raadsheer, F.C., Hoogendijk, W.J.G., Stam, F.C., Tilders, F.J.H. & Swaab, D.F. (1994). Increased numbers of corticotropin-releasing hormone expressing neurones in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of depressed patients. Clinical Neuroendocrinology, 60, 436-444.

Radden, J. (2000). The Nature of Melancholy: From Aristotle to Kristeva. New York: Oxford University Press.

Raleigh, M.J., McGuire, M.T., Brammer, G.L. & Yuwiler, A. (1984). Social and environmental influences on blood serotonin concentrations in monkeys. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 405-410.

Rasmussen, K.L.R. & Reite, M. (1982). Loss-induced depression in an adult macaque monkey. American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 679-681.

Ray, J.C. & Sapolsky, R.M. (1992). Styles of social behavior and their endocrine correlates among high-ranking wild baboons. American Journal ofPrimatology, 28, 231-250.

Reite, M. & Field, T. (1985). The Psychobiology of Attachment and Separation. New York: Academic Press.

Reynolds, M. & Brewin, C.R. (1999). Intrusive memories in depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Behavior Research and Therapy, 37, 201-215.

Ridley, M. (2000). Genome: The Autobiography of a Species. London: Fourth Estate.

Rooke, O. & Birchwood, M. (1998). Loss, humiliation and entrapment as appraisals of schizophrenic illness: A prospective study of depressed and non-depressed patients. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 37, 259-268.

Rosen, J.B. & Schulkin, J. (1998). From normal fear to pathological anxiety. Psychological Bulletin, 105, 325-350.

Rowe, D. (1983). Depression and the Way Out of Your Prison. London: Routledge.

Roy, M.P., Steptoe, A. & Kirschbaum, C. (1998). Life events and social support as moderators of individual differences in cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5, 1273-1281.

Rubin, T.I. (1975). Compassion and Self-Hatred: An Alternative to Despair. New York: Touchstone.

Rutter, M. (1986). Meyerian psychobiology, personality development and the role of life experiences. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 1077-1087.

Santor, D. & Walker, J. (1999). Garnering the interests of others: Mediating the effects among physical attractiveness, self-worth and dominance. British Journal ofSocial Psychology, 38, 461-477.

Sapolsky, R.M. (1989). Hypercortisolism among socially subordinate wild baboons originates at the CNS level. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 1047-1051.

Sapolsky, R.M. (1994). Individual differences and the stress response. Seminars in the Neurosciences, 6, 261-269.

Sapolsky, R.M. (1996). Why stress is bad for your brain. Science, 273, 749-750.

Sapolsky, R.M. (2000). Glucocorticoids and hippocampus atrophy in neuropsychiatric disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 925-935.

Schelde, J.T. (1998a). Major depression: Behavioral markers of depression and recovery. Journal of Mental and Nervous Disease, 186, 133-140.

Schelde, J.T. (1998b). Major depression: Behavioral parameters of depression and recovery. Journal of Mental and Nervous Disease, 186, 141-149.

Schneier, F.R., Johnson, J., Hornig, C.D., Liebowitz, M.R. & Weissman, M.M. (1992). Social phobia: Comorbidity and morbidity in an epidemiologic sample. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 282-288.

Schore, A.N. (1994). Affect Regulation and the Origin of the Self: The Neurobiology of Emotional Development. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Schore, A.N. (2001). The effects of early relational trauma on right brain development, affect regulation, and infant mental health. Infant Mental Health Journal, 22, 201-269.

Schuster, B. (1996). Rejection, exclusion, and harassment at work and in schools. European Psychologist, 1, 293-317.

Scott, J. (1988). Chronic depression. British Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 287-297.

Scott, J.C. (1990). Domination and the Arts of Resistance. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Segrin, C. & Abramson, L.Y. (1994). Negative reactions to depressive behaviours: A communication theories analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 655-668.

Shweder, R.A., Much, N.C., Mahapatra, M. & Park, L. (1997). The 'big three' of morality (autonomy, community and divinity) and the 'big three' explanations of suffering. In A.M. Brandt & P. Rozin (Eds), Morality and Health (pp. 119-169). New York: Routledge.

Sloman, L. (2000a). How involuntary defeat is related to depression. In L. Sloman & P. Gilbert (Eds), Subordination and Defeat: An Evolutionary Approach to Mood Disorders and Their Therapy (pp. 47-66). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Sloman, L. (2000b). The syndrome of rejection sensitivity. In P. Gilbert & B. Bailey (Eds), Genes on the Couch: Explorations in Evolutionary Psychotherapy (pp. 257-275). Hove: Brunner-Routledge.

Sloman, L. & Gilbert, P. (Eds) (2000). Subordination and Defeat: An Evolutionary Approach to Mood Disorders and Their Therapy. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Sloman, L., Gilbert, P. & Hasey, G. (2003). The role and interaction of attachment and social rank in depression. Journal of Affective Disorders.

Smith, P.K. & Myron-Wilson, R. (1998). Parenting and school bullying. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 3, 405-417.

Snaith, R.P., Hamilton, M., Morley, S., Humayan, A., Hargreaves, D. & Trigwell, P. (1995). A scale for the assessment of hedonic tone. The Snaith Hamilton Pleasure Scale. British Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 99-103.

Spence, S.H., Donovan, C. & Brechman-Toussaint, M. (1999). Social skills, social outcomes, and cognitive features of childhood social phobia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 211-221.

Suomi, S.J. (1997). Early determinants of behavior: Evidence from primate studies. British Medical Bulletin, 53, 170-184.

Swallow, S.R. (2000). A cognitive behavioural perspective on the involuntary defeat strategy. In L. Sloman & P. Gilbert (Eds), Subordination and Defeat: An Evolutionary Approach to Mood Disorders and Their Therapy (pp. 181-198). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Tangney, J.P. & Fischer, K.W. (Eds) (1995). Self-Conscious Emotions: The Psychology of Shame, Guilt, Embarrassment and Pride. New York: Guilford.

Tangney, J.P., Wagner, P. & Gramzow, R. (1992). Proneness to shame, proneness to guilt, and psy-chopathology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 469-478.

Taylor, S.E., Klein, L.B., Lewis, B.P., Gruenwald, T.L., Gurung R.A.R. & Updegaff, J.A. (2000). Biobehavioral responses to stress in females: Tend and befriend, not fight and flight. Psychological Review, 107, 411-429.

Teasdale, J.D. (1988). Cognitive vulnerability to persistent depression. Cognition and Emotion, 2, 247-274.

Teasdale, J.D. (1999). Emotional processing: Three modes of mind and the prevention of relapse in depression. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 37, 29-52.

Thase, M.E. & Howland, R.H. (1995). Biological processes in depression: An update and integration. In E.E. Beckham & W.R. Leber (Eds), Handbook of Depression, 2nd edn (pp. 213-279). New York: Guilford.

Thase, M.E., Dub, J.S., Bowler, K., et al. (1996). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical activity and response to cognitive behavior therapy in unmedicated, hospitalised depressed patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1253-1262.

Toates, F. (1995). Stress: Conceptual and Biological Aspects. Chichester: Wiley.

Tobena, A., Marks, I. & Dar, R. (1999). Advantages of bias and prejudice: An exploration of their neurocognitive templates. Neuroscience and Behavioral Reviews, 23, 1047-1058.

Tooby, J. & Cosmides, L. (1996). Friendship formation and the bankers paradox: Other pathways to the evolution of adaptations for altruism. Proceedings of the British Academy, 88, 119-143.

Uchino, B.N., Cacioppo, J.T. & Kiecolt-Glaser, J.K. (1996). The relationship between social support and physiological processes: A review with emphasis on underlying mechanisms and implications for health. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 488-531.

van Praag, H.M. (1998). Anxiety and increased aggression as pacemakers of depression. Acta Psy-chiatrica Scandinavica, 98 (Suppl. 393), 81-88.

Vinokur, A.D. & van Ryn, M. (1993). Social undermining: Their independent effects on the mental health of unemployed persons. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 350-359.

Von Holst, D. (1986). Vegetative and somatic components of tree shrews' behaviour. Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System (Suppl.), 657-670.

Vredenburg, K., Flett, G.L. & Krames, L. (1993). Analogue versus clinical depression: a critical reappraisal. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 327-344.

Watson, D. & Clark, L.A. (1988). Positive and negative affectivity and their relation to anxiety and depressive disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97, 346-353.

Watson, D., Clark, L.A., Weber, K., et al. (1995a). Testing a tripartite model. I. Evaluating the convergent and discriminate validity of anxiety and depression symptom scales. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 3-14.

Watson, D., Clark, L.A., Weber, K., Assenheimer, J., Strauss, M.E. & McCormick, R.A. (1995b). Testing a tripartite model. II. Exploring the symptom structure of anxiety and depression in student, adult and patient samples. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 15-25.

Watts, F. (1993). Problems with memory and concentration. In C.G. Costello (Ed.), Symptoms of Depression (pp. 113-140). New York: Wiley.

Wearden, A.J., Tarrier, N., Barrowclough, C., Zastowny, T.R. & Rahil, A.A. (2000). A review of expressed emotion research in health care. Clinical Psychology Review, 5, 633-666.

Weiss, J.M., Demetrikopoulos, M.K., McCurdy, P.M., West, C.H.K. & Bonsall, R.W. (2000). Depression seen through an animal model: An expanded hypothesis of pathophysiology and improved models. In R.J. Davidson (Ed.), Anxiety, Depression and Emotion (pp. 3-35). New York: Oxford University Press.

Wells, A. (2000). Emotional Disorders andMetacognition: Innovative Cognitive Therapy. Chichester: Wiley.

Whelton, W.J. (2000). Emotion in Self-Criticism. Unpublished PhD thesis: University of York: Montreal, Canada.

Wilkinson, R.G. (1996). Unhealthy Societies: The Affiliations of Inequality. London: Routledge.

Williams, M. (1997). Cry of Pain. London: Penguin Books.

Willner, P. (1985). Depression: A Psychobiological Synthesis. Chichester: Wiley.

Willner, P. (1993). Anhedonia. In C.G. Costello (Ed.), Symptoms of Depression (pp. 63-84). New York: Wiley.

Willner, P. & Goldstein, R.C. (2001). Mediation of depression by perceptions of defeat and entrapment in high-stress mothers. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 74, 473-485.

Wilson, D.R. (1998). Evolutionary epidemiology and manic depression. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 71, 375-395.

Wyatt, R. & Gilbert, P. (1998). Perfectionism and social rank. Personality and Individual Differences, 24, 71-79.

Zahn-Waxler, C. (2000). The development of empathy, guilt and internalization of distress: Implications for gender differences in internalizing and externalizing problems. In R.J. Davidson (Ed.), Anxiety, Depression and Emotion (pp. 222-265). New York: Oxford University Press.

Zeeman, E.C. (1977). Catastrophe Theory: Selected Papers 1972-1977. Reading: Addison Wesley.

Zeifman, D. & Hazan, C. (1997). Attachment: The bond in pair-bonds. In J. Simpson & D.T. Kendrick (Eds), Evolutionary Social Psychology (pp. 237-263). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Zuroff, D.C., Koestner, R. & Powers, T.A. (1994). Self-criticism at age 12: A longitudinal study of adjustment. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 18, 367-385.

Zuroff, D.C., Moskowitz, D.S. & Cote, S. (1999). Dependency, self-criticism, interpersonal behaviour and affect: Evolutionary perspectives. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 231-250.

Empowered Happiness Bible

Empowered Happiness Bible

Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Be A Success At Being Happy. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To Everything You Need To Know To

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment