Destroy Depression

Depression Causes and Treatments

Get Instant Access

Alexander, G.E., Crutcher, M.D. & DeLong, M.R. (1990). Basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits: Parallel substrates for motor, oculomotor, "prefrontal" and "limbic" functions. In H.B.M. Uylings et al. (Eds), Progress in Brain Research. New York: Elsevier.

American Psychiatric Association (1994). Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with bipolar disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151 (Suppl.), 1-36.

Andersen, K., Balldin, J., Gottfries, C.G., et al. (1987). A double-blind evaluation of electroconvulsive therapy in Parkinson's disease with "on-off" phenomena. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 76, 191-199.

Anderson, I.M. (2001). Meta-analytical studies on new antidepressants. British Medical Bulletin, 57, 161-178.

Anonymous (1984). The Northwick Park ECT trial. Predictors of response to real and simulated ECT. Clinical Research Centre, Division of Psychiatry. British Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 227-237.

Baldessarini, R.J., Tondo, L., Faedda, G.L., Suppes, T.R., Floris, G. & Rudas, N. (1996). Effects of the rate of discontinuing lithium maintenance treatment in bipolar disorders. Journal ofClinical Psychiatry, 57, 441-448.

Baldessarini, R.J., Tondo, L. & Viguera, A.C. (1999). Discontinuing lithium maintenance treatment in bipolar disorders: Risks and implications. Bipolar Disorders, 1, 17-24.

Ballantyne, H.T., Bouckoms, A.J., Thomas, E.K. & Giriunas, I.E. (1987). Treatment of psychiatric illness by stereotactic cingulotomy. Biological Psychiatry, 22, 807-819.

Barbui, C. & Hotopf, M. (2001). Amitriptyline v. the rest: Still the leading antidepressant after 40 years of randomised controlled trials. British Journal of Psychiatry, 178, 129-144.

Barbui, C., Hotopf, M., Freemantle, N., et al. (2000). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors versus tricyclic and heterocyclic antidepressants: Comparison of drug adherence. Cochrane Database Systematic Review, no. 4, p. CD002791.

Bauer, M., Hellweg, R., Graf, K.J. & Baumgartner, A. (1998). Treatment of refractory depression with high-dose thyroxine. Neuropsychopharmacology, 18, 444-455.

Bauer, M., Zaninelli, R., Müller-Oerlinghausen, B. & Meister, W. (1999). Paroxetine and amitriptyline augmentation of lithium in the treatment of major depression: A double-blind study. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 19, 164-177.

Baumgartner, A., Bauer, M. & Hellweg, R. (1994). Treatment of intractable non-rapid cycling bipolar disorder with high-dose thyroxine: An open clinical trial. Neuropsychopharmacology, 10, 183-189.

Berky, M., Wolf, C. & Kovacs, G. (1998). Carbamazepine versus lithium in bipolar affective disorder. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 248, S119.

Bowden, C.L., Brugger, A.M., Swann, A.C., Calabrese, J.R., Janicak, P.G. & Petty, F. (1994). Efficacy of valproate and lithium in the treatment of acute mania. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 108-111.

Bowden, C.L., Calabrese, J.R., McElroy, S.L., Gyulai, L., Wassef, A. & Petty, F. (2000). Arandomised, placebo-controlled trial of divalproex and lithium in the treatment of outpatients with bipolar I disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 481-489.

Bradwejn, J., Shriqui, C., Koszycki, D. & Meterissian, G. (1990). Double-blind comparison of the effects of clonazepam and lorazepam in acute mania. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 10, 403-408.

Brandon, S., Cowley, P., McDonald, C., Neville, P., Palmer, R. & Wellstood, E. (1985). Leicester ECT trial: Results in schizophrenia, British Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 177-183.

Bridges, P.K., Bartlett, J.R., Hale, A.S., Poynton, A.M., Malizia, A.L. & Hodgkiss, A.D. (1994). Psychosurgery: Stereotactic subcaudate tractotomy. An indispensable treatment. British Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 599-611.

Brodaty, H., Berle, D., Hickie, I. & Mason, C. (2001). "Side effects" of ECT are mainly depressive phenomena and are independent of age. Journal of Affective Disorders, 66, 237-245.

Buchan, H., Johnstone, E., McPherson, K., Palmer, R.L., Crow, T.J. & Brandon, S. (1992). Who benefits from electroconvulsive therapy? Combined results of the Leicester and Northwick Park trials. British Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 355-359.

Bunney, W.E. Jr. & Davis, J.M. (1965). Norepinephrine in depressive reactions: A review. Archives of General Psychiatry, 13, 483-494.

Burgess, S., Geddes, J., Hawton, K., Townsend, E., Jamison, K. & Goodwin, G. (2001). Lithium for maintenance treatment of mood disorders. Cochrane Database Systematic Review, 3, CD003013.

Burt, T., Lisanby, S.H. & Sackeim, H.A. (2002). Neuropsychiatric applications of transcranial magnetic stimulation: A meta-analysis. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 5, 73-103.

Calabrese, J.R., Bowden, C.L., Sachs, G.S., Ascher, J.A., Monaghan, E. & Rudd, G.D. (1999). A double-blind placebo-controlled study of lamotrigine monotherapy in outpatients with bipolar I depression. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 60, 79-88.

Calabrese, J.R., Rapport, D.J., Kimmel, S.E., Reece, B. & Woyshville, M. (1993). Rapid cycling bipolar disorder and its treatment with valproate. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry—Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie, 38, 57-61.

Calabrese, J.R., Shelton, M.D., Rapport, D.J. & Kimmel, S.E. (2002). Bipolar disorders and the effectiveness of novel anticonvulsants. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 63, (Suppl. 3), 5-9.

Carroll, B.J., Curtis, G.C. & Mendels, J. (1976). Neuroendocrine regulation in depression. II. Discrimination of depressed from non-depressed patients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 138, 1218-1221.

Cawley, R. & Tarish, M. (1994). Peer review of "Psychosurgery: Stereotactic subcaudate tractotomy. An indispensable treatment". British Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 612-613.

Charney, D.S., Southwick, S.M., Delgado, P.L. & Krystal, J.H. (1990). Current status of receptor sensitivity hypothesis of antidepressant action: Implications for the treatment of severe depression. In J.D. Amsterdam (Ed.), Pharmacotherapy of Depression, pp. 13-34. Basel: Marcel Dekker.

Chatterjee, S., Biber, A. & Weibezahn, C. (2001). Stimulation of glutamate, aspartate and gamma-aminobutyric acid release from synaptosomes by hyperforin. Pharmacopsychiatry, 34S, S11-S19.

Chatterjee, S., Noldner, M., Koch, E. & Erdelmeier, C. (1998). Antidepressant activity of Hypericum perforatum and hyperforin: The neglected possibility. Pharmacopsychiatry, 31S, S7-S15.

Chengappa, K.N.R., Levine, J. & Gershon, S. (2000). Inositol as an add-on treatment for bipolar depression. Bipolar Disorders, 2, 47-55.

Chouinard, G., Annable, L., Turnier, L., Holobow, N. & Szkrumelak, N. (1993). A double-blind randomized clinical trial of rapid tranquillization with I.M. clonazepam and I.M. haloperidol in agitated psychotic patients with manic symptoms. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry—Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie, 38 (Suppl. 4), S114-S121.

Compton, M.T. & Nemeroff, C.B. (2000). The treatment of bipolar depression. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 61 (Suppl.) 57-67.

Coppen, A. & Bailey, J. (2000). Enhancement of the antidepressant action of fluoxetine by folic acid: A randomised, placebo controlled trial. Journal of Affective Disorders, 60, 121-130.

Corrigan, M.H., Denahan, A.Q., Wright, C.E., Ragual, R.J. & Evans, D.L. (2000). Comparison of pramipexole, fluoxetine, and placebo in patients with major depression. Depression and Anxiety, 11, 58-65.

CRAG Working Group (1996). Neurosurgery for Mental Disorder. Scotland: HMSO (J2318 7/96).

Cummings, J.L. (1992). Depression and Parkinson's disease: A review. American Journal of Psychiatry, 4, 443-454.

De Leon, O.A. (2001). Antiepileptic drugs for the acute and maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 9, 209-222.

Delgado, P.L., Miller, H.L. & Salomon, R.M. (1999). Tryptophan-depletion challenge in depressed patients treated with desipramine or fluoxetine: Implications for the role of serotonin in the mechanism of antidepressant action. Biological Psychiatry, 46, 212-220.

Di Carlo, G., Borelli, F., Ernst, E. & Izzo, A. (2001). St John's wort: Prozac from the plant kingdom. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 22, 292-297.

Diehl, D.J. & Gershon, S. (1992). The role of dopamine in mood disorders. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 33, 115-120.

Doris, A., Ebmeier, K. & Shajahan, P. (1999). Depressive Illness. Lancet, 354, 1369-1375.

Drevets, W.C., Ongur, D. & Price, J.L. (1998). Neuroimaging abnormalities in the subgenual prefrontal cortex: Implications for the pathophysiology of familial mood disorders. Molecular Psychiatry, 3, 220-221.

Dubovsky, S.L. (1993). Calcium channel antagonists in manic-depressive illness. Neuropsychobiol-ogy, 27, 184-192.

Dunn, R.T., Frye, M.S., Kimbrell, T.A., Denicoff, K.D., Leverich, G.S. & Post, R.M. (1998). The efficacy and use of the anticonvulsants in mood disorders. Clinical Neuropharmacology, 21, 215-235.

Dunner, D.L. & Fieve, R.R. (1974). Clinical factors in lithium carbonate prophylaxis failure. Archives of General Psychiatry, 30, 229-233.

Ebert, D., Feistel, H., Kaschka, W., Barocka, A. & Pirner, A. (1994). Single photon emission computerized tomography assessment of cerebral dopamine D2 receptor blockade in depression before and after sleep deprivation—preliminary results. Biological Psychiatry, 35, 880-885.

Ebmeier, K.P. & Kronhaus, D. (2002). Brain imaging in mood disorders. In H.D'Haenen et al. (Eds), Textbook of Biological Psychiatry, pp. 815-828. New York: Wiley.

Edwards, R., Stephenson, U. & Flewett, T. (1991). Clonazepam in acute mania: A double-blind trial. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 25, 238-242.

Faedda, G.L., Tondo, L., Baldessarini, R.J., Suppes, T. & Tohen, M. (1993). Outcome after rapid vs. gradual discontinuation of lithium treatment in bipolar disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 448-455.

Fenton, G.W. (1999). Neurosurgery for mental disorder: Past and present. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 5, 261-270.

Fink, M. (2001). Convulsive therapy: A review of the first 55 years. Journal of Affective Disorders, 63, 1-15.

Freeman, C.P.L., Basson, J. & Crighton, A. (1978). A double-blind controlled trial of ECT and simulated ECT in depressive illness. Lancet, i, 738-740.

Freeman, M.P. & Stolle, A.L. (1998). Mood stabilizer combinations: A review of the safety and efficacy. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 12-21.

Frye, M.A., Ketter, T.A., Leverich, G.S., et al. (2000). The increasing use of polypharmacotherapy for refractory mood disorders: 22 years of study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 61, 9-15.

Fulton, J.E. & Jacobsen, C.F. (1935). The functions of the frontal lobes. A comparative study in monkey, chimpanzee and man. II. International Neurological Congress, pp. 70-71.

Furukawa, T., Streiner, D.L. & Young, L.T. (2000). Antidepressant plus benzodiazepine for major depression. Cochrane Database Systematic Review, 4, p. CD001026.

Furukawa, T.A., McGuire, H. & Barbui, C. (2002). Meta-analysis of effects and side effects of low dosage tricyclic antidepressants in depression: Systematic review. British Medical Journal, 325, 991-995.

Gelenberg, A.J. & Hopkins, H.S. (1996). Antipsychotics in bipolar disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 57 (Suppl.), 49-52.

George, M.S., Lisanby, S.H. & Sackeim, H.A. (1999). Transcranial magnetic stimulation: Applications in neuropsychiatry. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 300-311.

George, M.S., Sackeim, H.A., Rush, A.J., et al. (2000). Vagus nerve stimulation: A new tool for brain research and therapy. Biological Psychiatry, 47, 287-295.

George, M.S., Wassermann, E.M., Kimbrell, T.A., et al. (1997). Mood improvement following daily left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with depression: A placebo-controlled crossover trial. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 1752-1756.

Glass, R.M. (2001). Electroconvulsive therapy—time to bring it out of the shadows. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 1346-1348.

Glen, T. & Scott, A.I.F. (1999). Rates of electroconvulsive therapy use in Edinburgh (1992-1997). Journal of Affective Disorders, 54, 81-85.

Goktepe, E.O., Young, L.B. & Bridges, P.K. (1975). A further review of the results of stereotactic subcaudate tractotomy. British Journal of Psychiatry, 126, 270-280.

Goodwin, F.K. (1999). Anticonvulsant therapy and suicide risk in affective disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 60, (Suppl. 2), 89-93.

Goodwin, F.K. & Ebert, M. (1973). Lithium in mania: Clinical trials and controlled studies. In S. Gershon & B. Shopsin (Eds), Lithium: Its Role in Psychiatric Research and Treatment. New York: Plenum Press.

Goodwin, F.K., Murphy, D.L. & Bunney, W.F. Jr. (1969). Lithium carbonate treatment in depression and mania: A longitudinal double-blind study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 21, 486-496.

Greil, W., Kleindienst, N., Erazo, N. & Müller-Oerlinghausen, B. (1998). Differential response to lithium and carbamazepine in the prophylaxis of bipolar disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychophar-macology, 18, 455-460.

Greil, W., Ludwig-Mayerhofer, W. & Erazo, N. (1997). Lithium versus carbamazepine in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorders: A randomised study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 43, 151-161.

Haddad, P.M. (2001). Antidepressant discontinuation syndromes. Drug Safety, 24, 183-197.

Hansen, L. (2001). A critical review of akathisia, and its possible association with suicidal behaviour. Human Psychopharmacology, 16, 495-505.

Hawley, C.J., Loughlin, P.J., Quick, S.J., et al. (2000). Efficacy, safety and tolerability of combined administration of lithium and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: A review of the current evidence. Hertfordshire Neuroscience Research Group. Int Clin Psychopharmacol, 15, 197-206.

Holtzheimer, P.E., Russo, J. & Avery, D.H. (2002). A meta-analysis of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of depression. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 35, 149-169.

Hummel, B., Dittmann, S., Forsthoff, A., Matzner, N., Amann, B. & Grunze, H. (2002). Clozapine as add-on medication in the maintenance treatment of bipolar and schizoaffective disorders. A case series. Neuropsychobiology, 45, (Suppl. 1), 37-42.

Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group (2002). Effect of Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) in major depressive disorder. Journal of the American Medical Association, 287, pp. 1807-1814.

Jimerson, D.C. (1987). Role of dopamine mechanisms in the affective disorders. In H.Y. Meltzer (Ed), Psychopharmacology. The Third Generation of Progress (pp. 505-511). New York: Raven Press.

Johnstone, E.C., Deakin, J.F., Lawler, P., et al. (1980). The Northwick Park electroconvulsive therapy trial. Lancet, 2, 8208-8209, 1317-1320.

Kane, J.M. (1999). Tardive dyskinesia in affective disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 60, (Suppl. 5), 43-47.

Klein, E., Kreinin, I., Chistyakov, A., et al. (1999). Therapeutic efficacy of right prefrontal slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in major depression: A double-blind controlled study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 315-320.

Knight, G. (1964). The orbital cortex as an objective in the surgical treatment of mental illness. British Journal of Surgery, 51, 114-124.

Kogan, A.O. & Guilford, P.M. (1998). Side effects of short-term 10,000-lux light therapy. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 293-294.

Kuhn, R. (1958). The treatment of depressive states with G22355 (imipramine hydrochloride). American Journal of Psychiatry, 115, 459-464.

Lee, T.M., Chan, C.C., Paterson, J.G., Janzen, H.L. & Blashko, C.A. (1997). Spectral properties of phototherapy for seasonal affective disorder: A meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 96, 117-121.

Lima, M.S. & Moncrieff, J. (2000). A comparison of drugs versus placebo for the treatment of dysthymia. Cochrane Database Systematic Review, 2, p. CD001130.

Linde, K., Ramirez, G., Mulrow, C.D., Pauls, A., Weidenhammer, W. & Melchart, D. (1996). St John's wort for depression—an overview and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials. British Medical Journal, 313, no. 7052, 253-258.

Lisanby, S.H., Maddox, J.H., Prudic, J., Devanand, D.P. & Sackeim, H.A. (2000). The effects of electroconvulsive therapy on memory of autobiographical and public events. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 581-590.

Lisanby, S.H., Schlaepfer, T.E., Fisch, H.U. & Sackeim, H.A. (2001). Magnetic seizure therapy of major depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 303-305.

Maggs, R. (1963). Treatment of manic illness with lithium carbonate. British Journal of Psychiatry, 109, 56-65.

Maj, M. (2000). The impact of lithium prophylaxis on the course of bipolar disorder: A review of the research evidence. Bipolar Disorders, 2, 93-101.

Malhi, G.S. & Bartlett, J.R. (2000). Depression: A role for neurosurgery? British Journal of Neurosurgery, 14, 5, 415-423.

Malhi, G.S. & Bridges, P.K. (1997). Neurosurgery for mental disorders (NMD). A clinical worldwide perspective: Past, present and future. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 1, 119-129.

Marangell, L., Rush, J., George, M.S., et al. (2002). Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for major depressive episodes: One year outcomes. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 280-287.

McElroy, S.L. & Keck, P.E., Jr. (2000). Pharmacological agents for the treatment of acute bipolar mania. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 539-557.

McElroy, S.L., Keck, P.E. Jr., Pope, H.G. & Hudson, J.I. (1992). Valproate in the treatment of bipolar disorder: Literature review and clinical guidelines. Journal ofClinical Psychopharmacology, 12, (Suppl. 1), S42-S52.

Megga, M.S. & Cummings, J.L. (1994). Frontal-subcortical circuits and neuropsychiatric disorders. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 6, 358-370.

Meyerson, B.A. & Mindus, P. (1988). The role of the anterior internal capsulotomy in psychiatric surgery. In L.D. Lunsford (Ed.), Modern Stereotactic Neurosurgery, (pp. 353-363). Lancaster: Martinus Nijhoff.

Miguel-Hidalgo, J.J. & Rajkowska, G. (2002). Morphological brain changes in depression: Can antidepressants reverse them? Central Nervous System Drugs, 16, 372.

Mukherjee, S., Sackheim, H.A. & Schnurr, D.B. (1994). Electroconvulsive treatment of acute manic episodes: A review. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 169-176.

Müller, W., Rolli, M., Schafer, C. & Hafner, U. (1997). Effects of Hypericum extract (LI 160) in biochemical model of antidepressant activity. Pharmacopsychiatry, 30S, S102-S107.

Müller, W., Singer, A., Wonnermann, M., Hafner, U., Rolli, M. & Schafer, C. (1998). Hyperforin represents the neurotransmitter reuptake inhibiting constituent of Hypericum extract. Pharmacopsychiatry, 31S, S16-S21.

Murray, G.W. & Hay, D.A. (1997). Seasonal affective disorder in Australia: Is photoperiod critical? Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 31, 279-284.

Nemeroff, C.B., Evans, D.L. & Gyulai, L. (2000). Double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of imipramine and paroxetine in the treatment of bipolar depression. American Journal ofPsychiatry, 158, 906-912.

Newcombe, R. (1975). The lesion in stereotactic subcaudate tractotomy. British Journal of Psychiatry, 126, 478-481.

O'Leary, D., Paykel, E., Todd, C. & Vardulaki, K. (2001). Suicide in primary affective disorders revisited: A systematic review by treatment era. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 62, 804-811.

Pampallona, S., Bollini, P., Tibaldi, G., Kupelnick, B. & Munizza, C. (2002). Patient adherence in the treatment of depression. British Journal of Psychiatry, 180, 104-109.

Paykel, E.S., Hart, D. & Priest, R.G. (1998). Changes in public attitudes to depression during the Defeat Depression Campaign. British Journal of Psychiatry, 173, 519-522.

Philipp, M., Kohnen, R. & Hiller, K.O. (1999). Hypericum extract versus imipramine or placebo in patients with moderate depression: Randomised multicentre study of treatment for eight weeks. British Medical Journal, 319, (7224) 1534-1538.

Post, R.M., Frye, M., Deniciff, K., Leverich, G.S., Kimbrell, T.A. & Dunn, R.T. (1998). Beyond lithium in the treatment of bipolar illness. Neuropsychopharmacology, 19, 206-219.

Praschak, R., Neumeister, A., Hesselmann, B., Willeit, M., Barnas, C. & Kasper, S. (1997). Suicidal tendencies as a complication of light therapy for seasonal affective disorder: A report of three cases. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 58, 389-392.

Price, J.L. (1999). Prefrontal cortical networks related to visceral function and mood. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 877, 383-396.

Price, L.H. & Heninger, G.R. (1994). Lithium in the treatment of mood disorders. New England Journal of Medicine, 331, 591-598.

Pridmore, S., Khan, U.A., Reid, P. & George, M.S. (2001). Transcranial magnetic stimulation in depression: An overview. German Journal of Psychiatry, 4, 43-50.

Rajkowska, G., Miguel-Hidalgo, J.J., Wei, J., et al. (1999). Morphometric evidence for neuronal and glial prefontal cell pathology in major depression. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 1085-1098.

Richardson, A. (1973). Stereotactic limbic leucotomy: Surgical technique. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 49, 860-864.

Ruhrmann, S., Kasper, S., Hawellek, B., et al. (1998). Effects of fluoxetine versus bright light in the treatment of seasonal affective disorder. Psychological Medicine, 28, 923-933.

Sachs, G.S., Koslow, C.L. & Ghaemi, S.N. (2000). The treatment of bipolar depression. Bipolar Disorders, 2, 256-260.

Sackeim, H.A., Haskett, R.F., Mulsant, B.H., et al. (2001). Continuation pharmacotherapy in the prevention of relapse following electroconvulsive therapy—a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 1299-1307.

Sackeim, H.A., Prudic, J., Devanand, D.P., et al. (2000). A prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison of bilateral and right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy at different stimulus intensities. Archives ofGeneral Psychiatry, 57, 425-434.

Sapolsky, R.M., Krey, L.C. & McEwen, B. (1986). The neuroendocrinology of stress and ageing: The glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis. Endocrine Reviews, 7, 284-301.

Schildkraut, J.J. (1965). The catecholamine hypothesis of affective disorders: A review of supporting evidence. Americal Journal of Psychiatry, 122, 509-522.

Schou, M. (2000). Suicidal behaviour and prophylactic lithium treatment of major mood disorders: A review of reviews. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 30, 289-293.

Schou, M., Juel-Nielson, J., Stromgren, E. & Voldby, H. (1954). The treatment of manic psychoses by administration of lithium salts. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 17, 250-260.

Schulberg, H.C., Katon, W.J., Simon, G.E. & Rush, A.J. (1999). Best clinical practice: Guidelines for managing major depression in primary medical care. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 60, 19-26.

Shah, P.J., Glabus, M.F., Goodwin, G.M. & Ebmeier, K.P. (2001). Chronic, treatment resistant depression—MRI changes and clinical correlates. British Journal of Psychiatry.

Shah, P.J., Ogilvie, A., Goodwin, G.M. & Ebmeier, K.P. (1997). Clinical and psychometric correlates of dopamine D2 binding in depression. Psychological Medicine, 27, 1247-1256.

Sheline, Y.I., Wang, P.W., Gado, M.H., Csernansky, J.G. & Vannier, M.W. (1996). Hippocampal atrophy in recurrent major depression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 93, 3908-3913.

Singer, A., Wonnermann, M. & Muller, W. (1999). Hyperforin, a major antidepressant constituent of St John's wort, inhibits serotonin uptake by elevating free intracellular Na+. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 290, 1363-1368.

Smith, D., Dempster, C., Glanville, J., Freemantle, N. & Anderson, I. (2002). Efficacy and tolerability of venlafaxine compared with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and other antidepressants: A meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 180, 396-404.

Stimpson, N., Agrawal, N. & Lewis, G. (2002). Randomised controlled trials investigating pharmacological and psychological interventions for treatment-refractory depression. Systematic review. British Journal of Psychiatry, 181, 284-294.

Stokes, P.E., Shamoian, C.A., Stoll, P.M. & Patton, M.J. (1971). Efficacy of lithium as acute treatment of manic-depressive illness. Lancet, i, 1319-1325.

Stuart, G.W. (1985). The Northwick Park ECT trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 727-729.

Swann, A.C., Bowden, C.L., Morris, J., Calabrese, J.R., Petty, F. & Small, J. (1997). Depression during mania: Treatment response to lithium or divalproex. Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 1310-1318.

Tondo, L., Baldessarini, R.J. & Floris, G. (2001). Long-term clinical effectiveness of lithium maintenance treatment in types I and II bipolar disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 41, (Suppl.), S184-S190.

Tondo, L., Jamison, K.R. & Baldessarini, R.J. (1997). Effect of lithium maintenance on suicidal behaviour in major mood disorders. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 836, 339-351.

Trollor, J.N. & Sachdev, P.S. (1999). Electroconvulsive treatment of neuroleptic malignant syndrome: A review and report of cases. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 33, 650-659.

Vogel, G. (2000). New brain cells prompt new theories of depression. Science, 290, 258-259.

Weiner, R.D. (2000). Retrograde amnesia with electroconvulsive therapy—characteristics and implications. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 591-592.

Wheatley, D. (1997). LI 160, an extract of St. John's wort, versus amitriptyline in mildly to moderately depressed outpatients—a controlled 6-week clinical trial. Pharmacopsychiatry, 30, (Suppl 2), 77-80.

Woelk, H. (2000). Comparison of St John's wort and imipramine for treating depression: Randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal, 321, 7260, 536-539.

Wolkowitz, O.M. & Reus, V.I. (1999). Treatment of depression with antiglucocorticoid drugs. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61, 698-711.

Yatham, L.N. (2002). The role of novel antipsychotics in bipolar disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 63 (Suppl. 3), 10-14.

Young, L.T., Joffe, R.T., Robb, J.C., MacQueen, G.M., Marriott, M. & Patelis-Siotis, I. (2000). Doubleblind comparison of addition of a second mood stabilizer versus an antidepressant to an initial mood stabilizer for treatment of patients with bipolar depression. American Journal ofPsychiatry, 157, 124-126.

Young, M.A., Meaden, P.M., Fogg, L.F., Cherin, E.A. & Eastman, C.I. (1997). Which environmental variables are related to the onset of seasonal affective disorder? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 554-562.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
How to Stop Your Depression Now

How to Stop Your Depression Now

Finally, Retired Clinical Counsellor Reveals the Secrets Successful Psychiatrists and Psychologists Don't Want You to Know. How to Stop Your Depression Now Reclaim Yourself and Live Again Get the Depression Busting Tools You Need To Win the War Against Depression. Depression is an illness that many people often sweep under a rug. However if depression is left untreated... Your life can become a living nightmare. Depression is a growing epidemic in the US, but it never gets the urgent attention it deserves. You need help and you need it now.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment