Other environments

Other kinds of adverse experience may also contribute to the persistence of depression. For example, events such as physical assault or sexual abuse are strongly associated with subsequent depressive symptoms, even when the association of both with previous symptoms and family relationship problems is controlled statistically (Boney-McCoy & Finkelhor, 1996). A history of childhood physical or sexual abuse may be associated with a particular pattern of reversed neurovegetative depressive symptoms, such as increased appetite and hypersomnia (Levitan et al., 1998). Poor peer relationships are also associated with persistence of depression (Goodyer et al., 1997c).

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