Family environment

It is likely, however, that family environment also plays an important role in continuities. Some kinds of family adversity, such as marital discord, can be highly persistent (Richman et al., 1982; Rutter & Quinton, 1984), and there is growing evidence of the relevance of these factors to continuities of depressive disorders in young people. For example, Hammen and colleagues found a close temporal relationship between episodes of depression in children and episodes of depression in the mother (Hammen et al., 1991). Fergusson et al. (1995) reported that maternal depression was only associated with depressive symptoms in adolescent offspring insofar as maternal depression was associated with social disadvantage or family adversity. Depression in parents is associated with many problems that could lead to depression in offspring, including impaired child management practices, insecure attachment, poor marital functioning, and hostility towards the child (Cummings & Davies, 1994). Indeed, Asarnow and colleagues reported (Asarnow et al., 1993) that relapse of depression after discharge from a psychiatric inpatient sample was virtually confined to children who returned to a home environment characterized by high expressed emotion and hostility. Goodyer et al. (1997c) found that family dysfunction and lack of a confiding relationship with the mother predicted persistent psychiatric disorder in a sample with major depression.

Defeat Depression

Defeat Depression

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