Defeats and provoking agents

If humans carry within them a potential defeat strategy (no different from saying we have anger-attack strategies or anxious-flight strategies coded in the limbic system), it seems to operate by downgrading PA, and explorative and social engagement (Gilbert et al., 2002). Clearly, in humans, the elicitors and modulators of an involuntary defeat strategy are much more complex than they are in animals. Nonetheless, the typical elicitors of depression have the essence of 'defeat' about them. For example, Brown et al. (1987) and Brown et al. (1988) found that it is only life events that have long-term negative consequences that are related to depression. Such events include loss of resources and setbacks that force people to lower their standard of living (e.g., Ganzini et al., 1990); direct attacks on self-esteem that are shaming and humiliating, such as criticism and general putting-down in salient relationships (e.g., Belsher & Costello, 1988; Brown et al., 1995; Hooley & Teasdale, 1989); loss of (control over) core roles which are important for a person's sense of self and offer a sense of status, value, or prestige (e.g., Champion & Power, 1995; Gilbert, 1992; Rooke & Birchwood, 1998); and indirect attacks such as being ignored, marginalised, and lacking support and/or a confidant, indicating low access to social resources (Brown & Harris, 1978).

Understanding And Treating Bipolar Disorders

Understanding And Treating Bipolar Disorders

Are You Extremely Happy One Moment and Extremely Sad The Next? Are You On Top Of The World Today And Suddenly Down In The Doldrums Tomorrow? Is Bipolar Disorder Really Making Your Life Miserable? Do You Want To Live Normally Once Again? Finally! Discover Some Highly Effective Tips To Get Rid Of Bipolar Disorder And Stay Happy And Excited Always! Dont Let Bipolar Disorder Ruin Your Life Anymore!

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment