Defeats and hopelessness

Although hopelessness (a derivative of LH theory) has been put forward as a model for depression (Abramson et al., 1989), it should be noted that hopelessness is a relatively high-level cognition that, presumably, most animals could not have—yet animals clearly can (in some sense) show behavioural and physiological patterns of depression. We cannot test for hopelessness in animals, nor is it easy to study physiological mediators as we can for social losses, harassments of subordinates, entrapments, and defeats. In a way, hopelessness (which is undoubtedly a powerful factor in human depression) is an outcome of defeats and entrapments; it is a measure of predictions of long-term or continuing defeat and powerlessness; one is caught in a place, circumstances, or state of mind that one cannot get away from. This may be why it is correlated with entrapment (Gilbert & Allan,

1998) and is associated with suicide (Williams, 1997). Hopelessness also says little about social behaviour—except indirectly. The social-defeat and social-ranking model (Gilbert, 1992, 2000a; Price 1972; Sloman & Gilbert, 2000), however, suggests that defeats and subordination are intimately linked at the level of evolved mechanisms that regulate social behaviour, NA, and PA. Moreover, these regulators can produce rapid shifts in functioning. In the Gilbert & Allan (1998) study, we found not only that this measure was highly correlated with depression and hopelessness, but also that hopelessness was no longer significantly correlated with depression once defeat is controlled for. However, when we controlled for hopelessness, defeat was still highly correlated with depression.

Letting Go, Moving On

Letting Go, Moving On

Learning About Letting Go, Moving On Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life And Success! Don't be held back by the past - face your guilt and fears and move on! Letting go is merely arriving at a decision, no more allowing something from the past tense to influence your life today or to cut down your inner sense of peace and welfare.

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