Cognitive vulnerability

Scarring should be distinguished from the related concept of vulnerability, in which the predisposition to depression precedes the first episode.

Two types of cognitive problem are thought to make young people vulnerable to depression: (a) general cognitive deficits, such as reading retardation or low intelligence, and (b) cognitive distortions, such as a negative attributional style, that are believed to be specific to depression.

There may be early neurodevelopmental precursors of affective illness in both childhood and adult life. In a retrospective study of hospital records, Sigurdsson et al. (1999) found that adolescents with severe affective disorders (bipolar, manic, or psychotic depression) were significantly more likely to have experienced delayed language, social, or motor development. Associations between childhood developmental problems (such as low cognitive ability) and affective disorder were studied prospectively in the British 1956 national birth cohort study (Os et al., 1997). Affective disorder was assessed at interview when subjects were aged 36 and 43 years. Teacher questionnaires at ages 13 and 15 years also identified subjects with evidence of affective disturbance. Early cognitive ability independently predicted both adolescent affective disturbance and affective disorder in adult life. So, continuity could be due to an underlying neurodevelopmental problem that increases the liability to depression in both childhood and adult life.

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

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