Fatty acid transport and fatty acid-induced nuclear regulation of transport protein genes. Schematic diagram of a fatty acid (FA) entering a mammalian cell through a putative transmembrane carrier, binding to the intracellular fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) and moving to the nucleus. The mechanism(s) by which fatty acid enters the nucleus is unknown at this time. Upon entering the nucleus, the FA binds to a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) that dimerizes with holo-retinioc acid X receptor (RXR). This heterodimer recognizes and binds to a peroxisome proliferator-responsive element (PPRE) on target DNA, thereby effecting transcription of a downstream coding region. In particular, the expression of membrane fatty acid transporters and FABPs as well as many genes involved in both mitochondiral (M) fatty acid metabolism and peroxisomal (P) fatty acid oxidation are mediated via PPRE elements.
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