The schematic diagram of the experimental set-up is shown in Figure 4.6. Fed-batch cultivation was carried out in a BioFlo 3000 bench-top fermentor (New Brunswick Scientific Co., INC., USA). The vessel of the bioreactor has a total volume of 3L with a working volume of 2.5L. The input to the fermentor is the feed flow rate, which is controlled by a peristaltic pump. The measured outputs are the concentration of biomass and DO. The fo rmer is measured by sampling the reaction broth; the latter is continuously monitored with an oxygen electrode (12mm, A-Type, Mettler-Toledo Process An-alytical,Inc., USA). AFS-BioCommand process management software (New Brunswick Scientific Co., INC., USA) is installed on a PC-compatible computer to set up the feeding trajectory prior to the fermentation. It is also used to acquire data from sensors during the fermentation. A data communication device (AFS-BioCommand Interface module, New Brunswick Scientific Co., INC., USA) is used to bridge between the computer and the bioreactors. The temperature, agitation speed, airflow and pH are controlled through an onboard proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, and they can also be altered by using the software.
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