As early as the 1960s, artificial intelligence (AI) appeared in the control field, and a new era of control was born [26,27]. Chronologically, expert systems, fuzzy logic, artificial neural networks (ANNs) and evolutionary algorithms (EAs), particularly genetic algorithms (GAs), have been applied to add "intelligence" to various control systems. Recent years have witnessed the rapidly growing application of AI to biotechnological processes [28,29,30,31,32,33].
Each of the AI techniques offers new possibilities and makes intelligent control more versatile and applicable in an ever-increasing range of bioprocess controls. These approaches, in most part, are complementary rather than competitive. They are also utilized in combination, referred to as "hybrid". In this book, the combination of ANNs and GAs are used to optimize the fed-batch bioreactors.
A brief review of neural networks, GAs and their applications to biotech-nological process controls is presented below. This helps to lay the groundwork for intelligent monitoring, modelling and optimal control of fed-batch fermentation described later in the book.
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