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Elite Swing Mechanics

This ebook course teaches you everything that you need to know about the tricks that the best players use to play at the top of their game. You will learn all of the skills that the pros use to make sure that their game is the very best. This ebook comes with the full 120 page ebook on swing mechanics, videos to demonstrate the concepts, an audio version of the book that you can listen to on your own time, a 14 day email program that gives you other helpful tips and tricks, and lifetime updates to the content as well as article recommendations for you to take advantage of. This is more than a book; it is a collection of the best specialized knowledge that you will need to know in order to play like the best of the best do. Learn today how to play with the pros. Read more here...

Elite Swing Mechanics Overview


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Biomechanics Of The Elbow During Baseball Pitching

One of the most demanding activities on the elbow in sports is the baseball pitch. The prevalence of overuse injury to the elbow due to pitching is well docu-mented.12,18-23 Most of these overuse throwing injuries result from repetitive trauma to the elbow. An understanding and application of proper pitching mechanics can help to maximize performance and minimize the potential for injury. Although the baseball pitch is one continuous motion, dividing the motion into phases helps in understanding the elbow biomechanics during pitching. Werner et al. separated the pitch into six phases windup, stride, arm cocking, arm acceleration, arm deceleration, and follow-through.24 We provide next a description of the biomechanics of the elbow during each phase.

Operative Treatment Indications

In most overhead athletes who do not throw, the spectrum of UCL injuries can be managed nonoperatively, allowing even elite-level participation in most sports. However, reconstruction is indicated for athletes participating in sports that place high demand on the upper extremity, such as baseball pitching, javelin throwing, and serving. If nonoperative treatment fails, ligament reconstruction is a treatment option for overhead-throwing athletes who have pain in the medial aspect of the elbow or have a sense of movement in the elbow with the application of valgus loads during sports participation and have UCL laxity or rupture diagnosed on physical examination and confirmed by imaging studies. The surgeon should forewarn the patient that the recovery period following surgery is lengthy and that their sports requirements and aspirations should be consistent with this significant investment in attempting to restore a highly specific elbow function.

Relevant Anatomy And Pathophysiology

The biomechanics of throwing has been well described, and baseball pitching is recognized as one of the most demanding activities on the elbow in sports.16,17 The acceleration phase of throwing has been implicated in VEO (see Chapter 2). With repetitive valgus stress incurred during the acceleration phase over time, the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL), the humeroulnar articulation, and the flexor-pronator mass can weaken. As a result, when the elbow is brought into extension, the olecranon is wedged against the medial aspect of the trochlear groove and olecranon fossa. Because of this contact, impingement, chondromalacia, osteophyte production, and loose-body formation can occur (Fig. 10.1). Similar lesions can be seen, although less commonly, in the elbows of other athletes, such as tennis and volleyball players who place similar stresses on their elbows.

Pathogenesis of Injury

Elbow Ossification Center Fusion

Little League elbow is predominately an overuse syndrome of immature baseball pitchers but its manifestations are also seen in all positions of baseball and in other overhead activities, such as tennis, volleyball, javelin, and the quarterback position in football.10 Passing a football, serving a tennis ball, and spiking a volleyball place similar forces on the elbow as the pitching motion does. These overuse problems also occur in young gymnasts who place similar forces on the elbow by using it as a weight-bearing joint during maneuvers.11,12

Results And Expectations

Returned to participation at the same or higher level of competition for an average of 3.3 years. Patients should be counseled that this procedure is palliative, and recurrence of osteophytes or increased symptoms of instability may occur. Recently, questions have been raised regarding the possible stabilizing effect of the posteromedial osteophyte. Underlying incompetence of the UCL may be partially responsible for the development of the posteromedial osteophyte, and resection of the osteo-phyte may lead to increased stress on the ligament. Some patients may require subsequent reconstruction of the UCL. A recent follow-up study3 showed that the rate of revision elbow surgery was about 30 in professional baseball pitchers. Fifteen percent of these patients needed repeat osteophyte excision, and 15 needed UCL reconstruction. Patients who have revision elbow surgery have about a 50 chance of returning to their previous level of competition.

Biomechanics Of The Elbow During Underhand Throwing

Barrentine et al. estimated the amount of force experienced at the elbow during underhand softball pitching.59 During the acceleration phase, a compressive force equivalent to 445 N is exerted to resist elbow distraction. Elbow distraction is caused by the centrifugal force on the forearm resulting from the upper torso rotation of 650 sec, the arm rotating about the shoulder at 5260 sec, and the elbow flexing at 880 sec. A valgus torque of 45 N-m is generated at the elbow to resist varus stress caused by the combination of elbow flexion and shoulder internal rotation. After ball release, a compressive force of 356 N is exerted to resist distraction at the elbow during follow-through. The compressive force exerted on the elbow is smaller during underhand softball pitching than during overhand baseball pitching, and the timings of the maximum loads differ. Peak compressive force loads during underhand pitching occur during the acceleration phase, and peak forces during baseball pitching...

Forbes Wolfe Nanotech Reports

Given the range of cosmetics using nanoparticulate metal oxides primarily for UV protection it is interesting to note a cosmetics product containing fullerene in the list. In this case the fullerene is claimed to have antioxidant properties. Carbon nanotubes have been used as a reinforcing component in a new baseball bat. Silver nanoparticles feature again, this time in socks where enhanced bonding of the 19 nm silver particles to the polyester fibres is claimed to provide enhanced and longer-lasting antimicrobial and antifungal performance. A novel chewing gum having chocolate flavour, which is apparently difficult to achieve, has been produced using nanoscale crystals'' of unknown chemistry to enhance the compatibility of the cocoa butter with the polymers that are used to give the gum elasticity. So-called self-cleaning windows and paint surfaces are also included in the top 10. These are based on photoactive titanium dioxide with the windows gaining a further benefit when it...

Nonoperative Treatment

Coronal fast-spin, echo magnetic resonance imaging through the right elbow of a 30-year-old professional baseball player who had had an ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction using a palmaris longus tendon graft (arrows). Magnetic resonance imaging obtained after reinjury demonstrates partial-thickness disruption of the proximal aspect of the graft (superior arrow), but no evidence of full-thickness discontinuity. Using appropriate pulse sequences, previous surgery, or orthopedic instrumentation does not preclude diagnostic imaging. (Courtesy of Hollis G. Potter, MD) FIGURE 7.9. Coronal fast-spin, echo magnetic resonance imaging through the right elbow of a 30-year-old professional baseball player who had had an ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction using a palmaris longus tendon graft (arrows). Magnetic resonance imaging obtained after reinjury demonstrates partial-thickness disruption of the proximal aspect of the graft (superior arrow), but no evidence of...


A 25-year-old professional softball player sustained an injury to her right hip when she collided with the catcher while trying to steal home plate. Subsequently, she experienced persistent pain and catching, unresponsive to 7 months of conservative treatment including activity modification and supervised physical therapy. Radiographs and MRI were unremarkable. Because of her history of trauma, mechanical symptoms, examination findings, and failure to respond to conservative treatment, arthroscopy was performed, which revealed a traumatic rupture of the ligamen-tum teres (Figure 2.10) that was debrided. Postopera-tively, she experienced pronounced improvement

Medial Epicondylitis

Epizondylus Radial

In skeletally immature individuals, the flexor muscle-tendon unit may fail at the unfused apophysis of the medial epicondyle. Stress fracture, avulsion, or delayed closure of the medial epicondylar apophysis may occur in young baseball players secondary to overuse (Little League elbow).20 MRI may detect these injuries before complete avulsion and displacement by revealing soft tissue or marrow edema about the medial epicondylar apophysis on the STIR images.21


Of the various sport participants who have had UCL reconstruction, baseball pitchers are the most difficult to return to their previous level of function. However, most athletes who participate in sports involving overhead-throwing motions and who have UCL reconstruction are able to return to their previous level of function. Jobe and associates reported that 68 of overhead athletes, most of whom were baseball players, in their series returned to their previous level of participation after UCL reconstruction.12 Fifty percent of the repair group returned to their previous level. The time to recovery differed between the two groups the repair group averaged 9 months, and the reconstruction group averaged 12 months. Athletes who had previous elbow operations had a lower chance of returning to their previous level of participation than athletes who had not had previous elbow operations.


Findings with the radiographic features of elbow abnormalities in overhead throwing athletes in his study on javelin throwers. Bennett5 is credited with first describing specific injuries in the pitcher's elbow in 1941. In addition, he anecdotally reported the successful removal of loose bodies and the return of the athletes to competition. In 1959, he described spurs in the posterior compartment that he believed were part of the spectrum of lesions he had noted 18 years earlier.6 King et al.10 pointed out that about 50 of baseball pitchers have flexion contractures and 30 have cubitus valgus deformity. They coined the term medial elbow stress syndrome. Their description of the olecranon osteophyte and medial olecranon fossa hypertrophy leading to impingement is similar to VEO as it is recognized today. Slocum11 recognized the repetitive stresses that were placed on the elbow during pitching and the associated clinical and radiographic changes that result from these stresses. He...

Questions 192193

A 15-year-old boy was struck in the face by a baseball thrown by the opposing pitcher in a baseball game. The next day, he experienced difficulty smiling and was unable to blink his eye in response to irritation caused by a piece of dirt that came into the eye. Which of the following cranial nerves was affected by this accident 193. Concerning the patient discussed in Question 192, which of the following cranial nerves shown in the given figure was affected by the assault of the baseball

Athletic Pubalgia

Algorithm For Testicular Pain

The incidence of athletic pubalgia in various sports is listed in decreasing order soccer, hockey, football, track and field, baseball, basketball, racquet sports, and swimming. It can be inferred that this type of injury occurs most commonly during the autumn sports. Also, more than 90 of the patients that we have diagnosed with athletic pubalgia have been male. Most female patients are found to have other causes for their pain, such as endometriosis.93 The precise explanation for the difference in gender incidence is not known. Two possible hypotheses for the higher incidence in male patients are (1) a relatively low participation (until recently) of women in highly competitive sports and (2) a difference in pelvic anatomy. Our thought is that the latter hypothesis is much more likely. Various other terms have been used in the literature to describe what seems to be the same syndrome we have called athletic pubalgia. Those terms include Gilmore's groin, hockey groin syndrome,...

Football Passing

Although football passing is qualitatively similar to baseball pitching, it requires markedly less force and torque production to decelerate elbow extension than pitching requires. The lower incidence of elbow injury in quarterbacks who repetitively throw than in baseball pitchers may be attributed to the lower forces and torques generated during the deceleration phase. In junior high and high school, an athlete with a strong arm often becomes a football quarterback and a baseball pitcher. Because of the kinematic differences between the throwing motions, throwing a baseball and throwing a football during the same season could be detrimental to the development of proper mechanics. However, throwing footballs and baseballs in the off-season may have some positive training benefits. This training may especially benefit the adolescent or prepubescent athlete, whose objective should be to develop general fitness and athletic skills without committing to the specialization of one sport....

Baseball For Boys

Baseball For Boys

Since World War II, there has been a tremendous change in the makeup and direction of kid baseball, as it is called. Adults, showing an unprecedented interest in the activity, have initiated and developed programs in thousands of towns across the United States programs that providebr wholesome recreation for millions of youngsters and are often a source of pride and joy to the community in which they exist.

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